Faccionalização Radical dos Panteras Negras e o Desenvolvimento do Anarquismo Negro

Dana M. Williams


Os movimentos sociais de justiça racial geralmente se fragmentam quando seus objetivos não parecem completamente alcançáveis. Ex-participantes das lutas radicais pela libertação negra (Black freedom) das décadas de 1960 e 1970, em sua maioria membros do Partido dos Panteras Negras (BPP) (também participantes do Black Liberation Army [Exército Negro de Libertação]) e associados com o Marxismo-Leninismo, ficaram descontentes com o caráter hierárquico dos Panteras Negras e passaram a se identificar com o anarquismo. Através das lentes de teorias de faccionalização radical, o Anarquismo Negro é visto como uma consequência radical da luta pela liberdade negra. Os anarquistas negros foram os primeiros a notavelmente priorizar uma análise racial no anarquismo estadunidense. Essa tendência apresenta várias manifestações contemporâneas do anarquismo, incluindo os grupos Pessoas de cor anarquistas (Anarchist People of Color)dentro do movimento e, mais indiretamente, as muitas estratégias e organizações anarquistas que compartilham semelhanças com o BPP, antes de sua centralização.



Panteras Negras; Anarquismo; Pessoas de cor Anarquistas; Anarquismo Negro; Faccionalização Radical.

Texto completo:



Abron, J. M. (1998). “Serving the People”: The survival programs of the Black Panther Party. In C. E. Jones (Ed.), The Black Panther Party reconsidered (pp. 177-192). Baltimore, MD: Black Classics Press.

Aguilar, E. (2003a). APOC conference overview. Disponível em: .

Aguilar, E. (2003b, June 28). Race and anarchism: An interview with Ernesto Aguilar. The Female Species Zine. Disponível em: http://www.ainfos.ca/03/jun/ainfos00562.html

Aguilar, E. (2004). Our culture, our resistance: People of color speak out on anarchism, race, class, and gender. Autor. Edições arquivadas existem via “The Way back Machine”: https://web.archive.org/web/20060305234117/http://www.illegalvoices.org/downloads/ocor_book_1.pdf e https://web.archive.org/web/20060305233734/http://www.illegalvoices.org/downloads/ocor_book_2.pdf

Ahmad, M. (2007). We will return in the whirlwind: Black radical organizations 1960–1975. Chicago, IL: Charles H. Kerr.

Alimi, E. Y. (2011). Relational dynamics in factional adoption of terrorist tactics: A comparative perspective. Theory and Society, 40, 95-118.

Alston, A. (n.d.). Black anarchism: A talk by Ashanti Alston. Boston, MA: Boston ABC.

Alston, A. (1999). The good readings zine. Anarchist Panther, 1(1), 3-4.

Alston, A. (2002a). Beyond nationalism but not without it. Onward, 2(4), 1-11.

Alston, A. (2002b). One journey into and out of anarchist. Black. Anarchist Panther, 1(4), 19-21.

Alston, A. (2004). Introduction. In E. Aguilar (Ed.), Our culture, our resistance: People of color speak out on anarchism, race, class, and gender (pp. 2-7). Autor. Edições arquivadas existem via “The Way back Machine”: https://web.archive.org/web/20060305234117/http://www.illegalvoices.org/downloads/ocor_book_1.pdf

Alston, A. O. (2011). The Panthers, the Black Liberation Army and the struggle to free all political prisoners and prisoners of war. Perspectives on Anarchist Theory Journal, 13, 6-17.

Balagoon, K. (1971). Look for me in the whirlwind: The collective autobiography of the New York 21. New York, NY: Random House.

Balagoon, K. (2001). A soldier’s story: Writings by a revolutionary New Afrikan anarchist. Montréal, Québec, Canada: Kersplebedeb.

Balser, D. B. (1997). The impact of environmental factors on factionalism and schism in social movement organizations. Social Forces, 76, 199-228.

Beck, C. J. (2007). On the radical cusp: Ecoterrorism in the United States, 1998–2005. Mobilization: An International Quarterly Review, 12, 161-176.

Bookchin, M. (1969, January 15). Anarchy and organization: A letter to the left. New Left Notes. Disponível em: http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bookchin/leftletter.html

Bookchin, M. (2005). The ecology of freedom: The emergence and dissolution of hierarchy. Oakland, CA: AK Press.

Brown, L. (2011, August). The Black Panther Party for self defense: A Marxist, Maoist, Black Nationalist Organization. American Sociological Association presentation.

Carr, J. (2002). Bad: The autobiography of James Carr. Edinburgh, UK: AK Press.

Churchill, W., & Vander Wall, J. (1988). Agents of repression: The FBI’s secret wars against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement. Boston, MA: South End Press.

Cleaver, K. N. (2001). Women, power, and revolution. In K. Cleaver & G. Katsiaficas (Eds.), Liberation, imagination, and the Black Panther Party: A new look at the Panthers and their legacy (pp. 123-129). New York, NY: Routledge.

Clemens, E. S., & Hughes, M. D. (2002). Recovering past protest: Historical research on social movements. In B. Klandermans & S. Staggenborg (Eds.), Methods of social movement research (pp. 201-230). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Collins, P. H. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York, NY: Routledge.

Copeland, V. (1970). The crime of Martin Sostre. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Cornell, A. (2012). “White Skins, Black Masks”: Marxist and anti-racist roots of contemporary US Anarchism. In A. Prichard, R. Kinna, S. Pinta, & D. Berry (Eds.), Libertarian socialism: Politics in black and red (pp. 167-186). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Crass, C. (2001). Looking to the light of freedom: Lessons from the Civil Rights Movement and thoughts on anarchist organizing. In C. Crass (Ed.), Collective liberation on my mind (pp. 43-61). Montréal, Québec, Canada: Kersplebedeb.

Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (2001). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York City: New York University.

Della Porta, D., & Diani, M. (2006). Social movements: An introduction (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Della Porta, D., & LaFree. G. (2012). Processes of radicalization and de-radicalization. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6, 5-10.

Dragadze, T. (1996). Self-determination and the politics of exclusion. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 19, 341-351.

Dudouet, V. (2012). Intra-party dynamics and the political transformation of non-state armed groups. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6, 97-108.

Ervin, L. K. (1993). Anarchism and the Black revolution (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Mid-Atlantic Publishing Collective.

Ervin, L. K. (1994). A draft proposal for an Anarchist Black Cross network. Disponível em: < http://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/lorenzo-kom-boa-ervin-a-draft-proposal-for-an-anarchist-black-cross-network>. (Fonte: “http://www.spunk.org/library/groups/ abc/sp001498/abc.html”www.spunk.org)

Ervin, L. K. (1995). Lorenzo Ervin: The Black Flag interview. Black Flag, No. 206. Disponível em:

Ervin, L. K. (1996a). Anti-racism vs. anti-fascism: An analysis of the anti-racist action conference. Black Autonomy, 2(1), 3-13.

Ervin, L. K. (1996b). Authoritarian leftists: Kill the cop in your head. Disponível em: http://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/lorenzo-kom-boa-ervin-authoritarian-leftists.

Ervin, L. K. (2000a). Black autonomy & revolution: Lance Morgan Interviews Lorenzo Lorenzo Kom’boa. Kick It Over, 37, 24-29.

Ervin, L. K. (2000b). Short proposal for The Black Panther Movement. Kick It Over, 37, 25-27.

Ervin, L. K., & Abron, J. (2001, Spring). Civil rights, The Black Panthers, anarchism and today: An interview with Anarchist Community Organizers Lorenzo Kom’boa Ervin and Jo Nina Abron. Northeastern Anarchist, p. 2.

Free Ojore Lutalo: New Jersey anarchist freedom fighter. (1992, January). Love & Rage.

Haines, H. H. (1984). Black radicalization and the funding of civil rights: 1957-1970. Social Problems, 32(1), 31-43.

Heynen, N. (2009). Bending the bars of empire from every ghetto for survival: The Black Panther Party’s radical antihunger politics of social reproduction and scale. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 99, 406-422.

Heynen, N., & Rhodes, J. (2012). Organizing for survival: From the Civil Rights Movement to Black anarchism through the life of Lorenzo Kom’boa Ervin. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 11, 393-412.

Hilliard, D., & Cole, L. (1993). The autobiography of David Hilliard and the story of the Black Panther Party. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Ignatiev, N., & Garvey, J. (1996). Race traitor. London, England: Routledge.

Jackson, G. (1994). Soledad brother: The prison letters of George Jackson. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill.

Jackson, G. (1995). To the reader. Black Autonomy, 1(1), 3.

Johnson, O. A. (1998). Explaining the demise of the Black Panther Party: The role of internal factors. In C. E. Jones (Ed.), The Black Panther Party reconsidered (pp. 391-414). Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press

Johnson, R. A. (1975). The prison birth of Black power. Journal of Black Studies, 5, 395-414.

Joseph, P. E. (2006). Waiting ’til the midnight hour: A narrative history of Black power in America. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company.

Lavelle, A. (2012). From “Soul on Ice” to “Soul for Hire?” The political transformation of Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver. Race & Class, 54, 55-74.

Leier, M. (2006). Bakunin: The creative passion. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

Lewis, G. (2004). No way as a way: An interview with Greg Lewis. In E. Aguilar (Ed.), Our culture, our resistance: People of color speak out on anarchism, race, class, and gender (Vol. 1, pp. 75-89). Author. Edições arquivadas existem via “The Way back Machine”. Disponível em: https://web.archive.org/web/20060305234117/http://www.illegalvoices.org/downloads/ocor_book_1.pdf

Love and Rage Revolutionary Anarchist Federation. (1997). Member handbook: New York Local. New York, NY: Love and Rage Revolutionary Anarchist Federation.

Lutalo, O. (1998). Autonomy defined: Correspondence to Anarchist Black Cross affiliates (Disponível em Periodicals Collection, Anarchist Archive at University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada).

Lutalo, O. N. (2004). In my own words [video]. Disponível em: http://vimeo.com/19687951

Marable, M. (2011). Malcolm X: A life of reinvention. New York, NY: Viking.

Maruna, S., Wilson, L., & Curran, K. (2006). Why god is often found behind bars: Prison conversions and the crisis of self-narrative. Research in Human Development, 3, 161-184.

Mbah, S., & Igariwey, I. E. (1997). African anarchism: The history of a movement. Tucson, AZ: See Sharp Press.

Michels, R. (1949). Political parties: A sociological study of the oligarchical tendencies of modern democracy. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Muntaqim, J. (2002). On the Black Liberation Army. Montréal, Québec, Canada: Abraham Guillen Press.

National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (2011). Global terrorism data base [Electronic data file]. Disponível em: http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd

Newton, H. (1968, November 16). In defense of self-defense. The Black Panther, 1-12.

Newton, H. (2009). To die for the people. San Francisco, CA: City Lights.

O’Brien, E. (1999). Mind, heart and action: Understanding the dimensions of antiracism. Research in Politics and Society, 6, 305-321.

Olson, J. (2009). Between infoshops and insurrection: U.S. anarchism, movement building, and the racial order. In R. Amster, A. DeLeon, L. A. Fernandez, A. J. Nocella, & D. Shannon (Eds.), Contemporary anarchist studies: An introductory anthology of anarchy in the academy (pp. 35-45). London, England: Routledge.

From Panther to anarchist. (2009). Organise!, 28, 12-13.

Preston, J., & Chadderton, C. (2012). Rediscovering “Race Traitor”: Towards a critical race theory informed public pedagogy. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 15, 85-100.

Ransby, B. (2003). Ella Baker and the Black freedom movement: A radical democratic vision. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Revolutionary Anti-Authoritarians of Color. (2002). An anarchist introduction to critical race theory. Disponível em: http://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/revolutionary-anti-authoritarians-of-color-an-anarchist-introduction-to-critical-race-theory

Ribeiro, P. (2005). Senzala or Quilombo: Reflections on APOC and the Fate of Black anarchism. Disponível em: http://www.ainfos.ca/sup/ainfos00395.html

Rosenau, W. (2013). “Our Backs Are Against the Wall”: The Black Liberation Army and domestic terrorism in 1970s America. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36,176-192.

Rucht, D. (1999). Linking organization and mobilization: Michels’s iron law of oligarchy reconsidered. Mobilization: An International Journal, 4, 151-169.

San Filippo, R. (2003). A new world in our hearts: Eight years of writings from the Love and Rage Revolutionary Anarchist Federation. Edinburgh, UK: AK Press.

Schaich, W. L., & Hope, D. S. (1977). The prison letters of Martin Sostre: Documents of resistance. Journal of Black Studies, 7, 294-295.

Seidman, G. (2001). Guerrillas in their midst: Armed struggle in the South African Anti-Apartheid Movement. Mobilization: An International Journal, 6, 111-128.

Sostre, M. (1976). The Open Road Interview with Martin Sostre. Open Road, 1, 13 (courtesy of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Periodicals Collection, Anarchist Archive at University of Victoria).

Staudenmaier, M. (2012). Truth and revolution: A history of the Sojourner Truth Organization 1969–1986. Oakland, CA: AK Press.

Umoja, A. O. (1999). Repression breeds resistance: The Black Liberation Army and the Radical Legacy of the Black Panther Party. New Political Science, 21, 131-155.

Williams, D. M. (2012). From top to bottom, a thoroughly stratified world: An anarchist view of inequality and domination. Race, Gender & Class, 19(3-4), 9-34. X, M. (1990). The autobiography of Malcolm X: As told to Alex Haley. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.


  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2021 Revista Estudos Libertários

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.