Diego Azevedo Zoccal Garcia, Armando César Rodrigues Casimiro, Iago Vinicios Geller, João Daniel Ferraz, Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli, Mário Luís Orsi


We report cases of live bait introductions in Brazilian freshwater ecosystems and the first occurrence of the crab Dilocarcinus pagei, which is native from the Paraguay-Lower Paraná River, in the Paranapanema River basin. The literature review revealed 16 species used as live baits across Brazil, the crab D. pagei and 15 fish species. During our field samplings, we have captured 10 individuals of D. pagei. Gymnotiformes, which is native mainly from the Paraguay-Lower Paraná River, was the most common fish order that was used as live bait. The river basins that had introduction cases detected in our study were Upper Paraná, Iguaçu, and Paraíba do Sul Rivers. The Paraguay-Lower Paraná River was the system that had contributed with nine species to the most invaded ecoregion in Brazil, the Upper Paraná River basin. Anglers and live bait farmers should be aware of the risks and consequences of these constant introductions. In addition, the live bait trade must be monitored and controlled to use only native species within their original distribution range.


biodiversity loss; conservation; neotropical; South America; vector.

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