Norman Fairclough


In this chapter I summarize how my approach to CDA has changed over 30 years, and then present the most recent version of it: CDA as ‘dialectical reasoning’. This emphasizes the relationship between critique, explanation and action. I discuss how this view of CDA might support political action to change social life for the better, referring to the ‘Kilburn Manifesto’ for transcending neoliberalism.  The focus upon dialectical reasoning and political action differentiates this chapter from one in an earlier Routledge Handbook (Fairclough 2012). 


Critical Discourse Analisys

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Bhaskar, R. 1989. Reclaiming reality. London: Routledge.

Bhaskar, R. 1993. Dialectic: the pulse of freedom. London: Verso.

Fairclough, N. 1989. Language and Power. London: Longman.

Fairclough, N. 1992. Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Fairclough, N. 1993. Critical discourse analysis and the marketization of public discourse: the universities Discourse and Society 4.2 133-168.

Fairclough, N. 2010. Critical Discourse Analysis, 2nd edition. London: Longman.

Fairclough, N. 2012. Critical discourse analysis, in James Gee & Michael Handford (eds) The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis London: Routledge 9-20.

Fairclough, N. 2013. Critical discourse analysis and critical policy studies. Critical Policy Studies, 7.2, 177-197.

Fairclough, N. 2014. Introduction, Language and Power 3rd. edition. London: Routledge.

Fairclough, I. & Fairclough, N. 2012. Political discourse analysis London: Routledge.

Fairclough, N., & Graham, P. 2002. Marx as critical discourse analyst: the genesis of a critical method and its relevance to the critique of global capital. Estudios de Sociolinguistica, 3.1,185 – 229. Reprinted in Fairclough (2010, pp. 301-346).

Fairclough, N., Jessop, B. & Sayer, A. 2004. Critical realism and semiosis, in J. Joseph & J. Roberts (eds) Realism, Discourse and Deconstruction. London: Routledge 23-42.

Gramsci, A. 1995. Further Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence & Wishart.

Hall, S., Massey, D. & Rustin, M. 2015. After Neoliberalism? The Kilburn Manifesto. London: Lawrence & Wishart.

Jessop, B. 2004. Critical semiotic analysis and cultural political economy, Critical Discourse Studies 1.2 159-74.

Levinson, S. 1992 Activity types and language, in P. Drew & J. Heritage eds. Talk at Work: Interaction in Institutional Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 66-100.


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