Application of lithium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate (nonaflate) based non-aqueous liquid electrolytes (NALE) in lithium-ion batteries


  • Hirankumar Gurusamy Department of Physics, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, Chennai
  • Sakunthala Ayyasamy Solid State Ionics Lab, Department of Applied Physics, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Daries Bella Department of Physics, Stella Maris College, Chennai 600 086, Tamil Nadu, India


electrolyte, lithium ionic conductivity, electrochemical properties, impedance spectroscopy


The non-aqueous electrolyte system comprising of the lithium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate (LiNfO) as a potential lithium ion-conducting salt in an equivalent binary mixture of propylene carbonate (PC) and 1, 2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the solvent was explored for the lithium battery applications. The LiNfO based non-aqueous liquid electrolyte (NALE) system showed the highest ionic conductivity of 2.66 x 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature, and a potential window stability of ~5 V. The lithium ion cells, Li/NALE//LiCoO2 werefabricated with the proposed non-aqueous electrolyte. The cell with particular composition of electrolyte delivered a high specific discharge capacity of 154 mA h g-1 at ambient temperature. The potential advantages of the proposed NALE are discussed in detail.


DING, J., WANG, H., LI, Z., et al., “Peanut shell hybrid sodium ion capacitor with extreme energy–power rivals lithium ion capacitors”, Energy and Environmental Sciences,v. 8, pp. 941-955, March 2015.

PRABU, M., SELVASEKARAPANDIAN, S., KULKARNI, A., et al., “Structural, dielectric, and conductivity studies of yttrium-doped LiNiPO4 cathode materials”, Ionics, v. 17, pp. 201-207, March 2011.

AMBIKA, C., HIRANKUMAR, G., “Characterization of CH3SO3H-doped PMMA/PVP blend-based proton-conducting polymer electrolytes and its application in primary battery”, Applied Physics A, v. 122, pp. 113-123, February 2016.

KRAUSE, L.J., LAMANNA,W., SUMMERFIELD, J., et al.,” Corrosion of aluminum at high voltages in non-aqueous electrolytes containing perfluoroalkylsulfonyl imides”; new lithium salts for lithium-ion cells, Journal of Power Sources, v. 68, pp. 320-325, March 1997.

WILKEN, S., TRESKOW, M., SCHEERS, J., et al., “Initial stages of thermal decomposition of LiPF6-based lithium ion battery electrolytes by detailed Raman and NMR spectroscopy”, RSC Advances, v. 3, pp. 16359-16364, October 2013.

ZHANG, H., FENG, W., NIE, J., et al., ”Recent progresses on electrolytes of fluorosulfonimide anions for improving the performances of rechargeable Li and Li-ion battery”, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, v. 174, pp. 49-61, June 2015.

KARUPPASAMY, K., REDDY, P.A., SRINIVAS, G., et al., “An efficient way to achieve high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability of safer nonaflate anion-based ionic liquid gel polymer electrolytes (ILGPEs) for rechargeable lithium ion batteries”, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, v. 955, pp. 1145-1155, April 2017.

KARUPPASAMY, K., REDDY, P.A., SRINIVAS, G., et al., “Electrochemical and cycling performances of novel nonafluorobutanesulfonate (nonaflate) ionic liquid based ternary gel polymer electrolyte membranes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries”, Journal of Membrance Science, v. 514, pp. 350-357, September 2016.

ARAI, J., KATAYAMA, H., AKAHOSHI, H., et al “Binary Mixed Solvent Electrolytes Containing Trifluoropropylene Carbonate for Lithium Secondary Batteries”, Journal of Electrochemical Society, v. 149, pp. A217-A226, January 2002.

GUO-RONG, H., JING-CHAO, C., ZHONG-DONG, P., et al., “Enhanced high-voltage properties of LiCoO2 coated with Li[Li0.2Mn0.6Ni0.2]O2”, Electrochimica Acta, v. 149 pp. 49-55, March 2014. 149 (2014) 49-55.

LEE, C., KIM, J.H., BAE, J.Y., et al “Polymer gel electrolytes prepared by thermal curing of poly(vinylidene fluoride)–hexafluoropropene/poly(ethylene glycol)/propylene carbonate/lithium perchlorate blends”, Polymer, v. 44, pp. 7143-7155, Noveber 2003.

NANBU, N., TAKIMOTO, K., TAKEHARA, M., et al.,”Electrochemical properties of fluoropropylene carbonate and its application to lithium-ion batteries”, Electrochemistry Communications, v. 10, pp. 783-786, May 2008.

XIANGBANG, K., RONG, Z., JING, W., et al., “An Effective Electrolyte Strategy to Improve the High Voltage Performance of LiCoO2 Cathode materials”, ACS Applied Energy Materials, v. 2, pp. 4683-4691, June 2019.

TAN, K.S., REDDY, M.V., SUBBA RAO, G.V., et al., “AlPO4-coating on cathodic behaviour of Li(Ni0.8Co0.2)O2”, Journal of Power Sources, v. 141, pp. 129–142, February 2005.

HONG-BO, H., SI-SI ZHOU, DAI-JUN ZHANG, et al., “Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) as conducting salt for nonaqueous liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries: Physicochemical and electrochemical properties”, Journal of Power Sources, v. 196, pp. 3623–3632, April 2011.

ZHAO, Y., WANG, J., YAN, Z., et al., “Molar volumes and viscosities of LiClO4 and LiBr in propylene carbonate + 1,2-dimethoxyethane mixed solvents at 298.15 K”, Fluid Phase Equilibria, v. 244, pp. 105-110, June 2006.

ABOUIMRANE, A., DING, J., DAVIDSON, I., et al “Liquid electrolyte based on lithium bis-fluorosulfonyl imide salt: Aluminum corrosion studies and lithium ion battery investigations”, Journal of Power Sources, v. 189, pp. 693-696, April 2009.

WALKER, C.W., COX J.D, SALOMON, M., et al “Conductivity and Electrochemical Stability of Electrolytes Containing Organic Solvent Mixtures with Lithium tris(Trifluoromethanesulfonyl)methide”, Journal of Electrochemical Society, v. 143, pp. L80-L82, January 1996.

LAM, P.H., TRAN, A.T., WALCZYK, D.J., et al., “Conductivity, viscosity, and thermodynamic properties of propylene carbonate solutions in ionic liquids”, Journal of Molecular Liquids, v. 246, pp. 215-220, November 2017.

GHOSH, A., WANG, C., KOFINAS, P., et al “Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number”, Journal of Electrochemical Society, v. 157, pp. A846-A849, May 2010.

ZUGMANN, S., FLEISCHMANN, M., AMERELLER, M., et al., “Measurement of transference numbers for lithium ion electrolytes via four different methods, a comparative study”, Electrochimica Acta, v. 56, pp. 3926-3933, April 2011.

YAN, D., BAZANT, M.Z., BIESHEUVEL, P., et al., “Theory of linear sweep voltammetry with diffuse charge: Unsupported electrolytes, thin films, and leaky membranes”, Physical Review E, v. 95, pp. 033303, March 2017.

GIRARD, G.M.A., HILDER, M., ZHU, H., et al., “Electrochemical and physicochemical properties of small phosphonium cation ionic liquid electrolytes with high lithium salt content”, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, v. 17, pp. 8706-8713, April 2015.

ZARROUGUI, R., HACHICHA, R., RJAB, R., et al., “1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids employed as suitable electrolytes for high energy density supercapacitors based on graphene nanosheets electrodes”, Journal of Molecular Liquids, v. 249, pp. 795-804, January 2018.

SCHRODER, K W., DYLLA, A G., BISHOP, L D., et al., “Effects of Solute–Solvent Hydrogen Bonding on Nonaqueous Electrolyte Structure”, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, v. 6, pp. 2888-2891, July 2015.

TAKAMATSU, D., ORIKASA, Y., MORI, S., et al., “Effect of an Electrolyte Additive of Vinylene Carbonate on the Electronic Structure at the Surface of a Lithium Cobalt Oxide Electrode under Battery Operating Conditions”, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, v. 119, pp. 9791-9797, April 2015.

REDDY, M.V., SUBBA RAO, G.V., CHOWDARI, B.V.R., et al “Cathodic behaviour of NiO-coated Li(Ni1/2Mn1/2)O2”, Electrochimica Acta, v. 8, pp. 3375–3382, May 2005.

REDDY, M.V., SUBBA RAO, G.V., CHOWDARI, B.V.R., et al “Preparation and Characterization of LiNi0.5Co0.5O2 and LiNi0.5Co0.4Al0.1O2 by Molten Salt Synthesis for Li Ion Batteries”, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, v. 111, pp. 11712-11720, July 2007.

SZU LUI TEY., REDDY M.V., SUBBA RAO G.V., et al., “Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Properties of [Li(H2O)M(N2H3CO2)3]∙0.5H2O (M = Co,Ni) as Single Precursors to LiMO2 Battery Materials”, Chemistry of Materials, v. 18, pp. 1587-1594, February 2006.

ZHANG, L., MA, Y., CHENG, X., et al., “Capacity fading mechanism during long-term cycling of over-discharged LiCoO2/mesocarbonmicrobeads battery”, Journal of Power Sources, v. 293, pp. 1006-1015, October 2015.

CAO, J., HU, G., PENG, Z., et al., “Polypyrrole-coated LiCoO2 nanocomposite with enhanced electrochemical properties at high voltage for lithium-ion batteries”, Journal of Power Sources, v. 281, pp. 49-55, May 2015.

AURBACH, D., GAMOLSKY, K., MARKOVSKY, B., et al.,” On the use of vinylene carbonate (VC) as an additive to electrolyte solutions for Li-ion batteries”, Electrochimica Acta, v. 47, pp. 1423-1439, February 2002.

YATABE, S., HORIBA, T., KUBOTA, K., et al., “Effect of diphenylethane as an electrolyte additive to enhance high-temperature durability of LiCoO2/graphite cells”, Electrochimica Acta, v. 270, pp. 120-128, April 2018.

WANG, F., WU, Y., LU, K., et al., “A sensitive voltammetric sensor for taxifolin based on graphenenanosheets with certain orientation modified glassy carbon electrode”, Sens. Actuator B-Chem. v. 208, pp. 188-194, March 2015.

REDDY, M V., PECQUENARD, B.,VINATIER, P., et al., “Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling characteristics of LiNiVO4 thin films during lithium insertion and re/de-insertion”, Electrochemistry Communications, v. 955, pp. 409–415, March 2007.

RAMADAN, H., BECHERIF, M.,CLAUDE F., et al “Extended kalman filter for accurate state of charge estimation of lithium-based batteries: a comparative analysis”, Inernational Journal of Hydrogen Energy, v. 42, pp. 29033-29046, November 2017.

MAFTOON-AZAD, I. and NAZARI F., “Anion-cation, anion-lithium, cation-lithium and ion pair-lithium interactions in alicyclic ammonium based ionic liquids as electrolytes of lithium metal batteries”, Journal of Molecular Liquids, v. 242, pp. 1228-1235, September 2017.

DOKKO, K., NAKATA, N., KANAMURA, K., et al “High rate discharge capability of single particle electrode of LiCoO2”, Journal of Power Sources, v. 189, pp. 783-785, April 2009.

CHEN, Z., and DAHN, J., “Methods to obtain excellent capacity retention in LiCoO2 cycled to 4.5 V”, Electrochimica Acta, v. 49, pp. 1079-1090, March 2004.

TANG, W., LIU, L., TIAN, S., et al., “Nano-LiCoO2 as cathode material of large capacity and high rate capability for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries”, Electrochemistry Communications, v. 12, pp. 1524-1526, November 2010.

MCLAREN,V.L., WEST, A.R., TABUCHI, M., et al., “Study of the Capacity Fading Mechanism for Fe-Substituted LiCoO2 Positive Electrode”, Journal of Electrochemical Society, v. 151, pp. A672-A681, May 2004.

PARK, J.S., MANE, A.U., ELAM, J.W., et al., “Amorphous Metal Fluoride Passivation Coatings Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition on LiCoO2 for Li-Ion Batteries”, Chemistry of Materials, v. 27, pp. 1917-1920, March 2015.

ZUO, D., TIAN, G., CHEN, D., et al., “Comparative study of Al2O3-coated LiCoO2 electrode derived from different Al precursors: uniformity, microstructure and electrochemical properties”, Electrochimica Acta, v. 178, pp. 447-457, October 2015.

REDDY, M. V., BRYAN LEE WEI WEN., KIAN PING, L., et al., “Energy Storage Studies on InVO4 as High Performance Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries”, `ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, v. 5, pp. 7777-7785, July 2013.

XUEHUI, S., GUOFENG, J., FAQIANG, L., et al., “Mixed salts of LiFSI and LiODFB for stable LiCoO2-based batteries”, Journal of Electrochemical Society, v. 163, pp. A2797-A2802, October 2016.






Materials and Energy