O Estado desenvolvimentista. Vivo ou morto?

Robert Wade

Resumo


Antes da década de 1980, a principal receita dada pelo Ocidente aos países em desenvolvimento para acompanhá-los atribuía ao Estado um papel de liderança sobre o mercado. Nos anos 1980, a situação mudou para um papel de fornecimento de um aparato para uma economia amplamente desregulada e aberta. Também tornou-se evidente que algumas economias capitalistas do Leste Asiático estavam crescendo tão rapidamente que se tornariam "desenvolvidas" em um futuro próximo, marcando-as como completamente excepcionais. Economistas do mainstream explicaram seu sucesso como resultado da adoção das receitas ocidentais, enquanto outros estudiosos atribuíram esse rápido crescimento ao “Estado Desenvolvimentista”. Este ensaio compara essas duas explicações para o desenvolvimento econômico bem-sucedido, concluindo em favor do último. O artigo também analisa os acontecimentos posteriores. Vários estudiosos que aceitam o papel fundamental do estado desenvolvimentista no período inicial de rápida industrialização no leste da Ásia passaram a argumentar que a Coreia do Sul, Taiwan e Cingapura se transformaram de estados desenvolvimentistas em estados quase neoliberais. Essa contribuição argumenta que os antigos Estados desenvolvimentistas do Leste Asiático realmente mudaram, mas não se transformaram em estados neoliberais. Em vez disso, eles se adaptaram e evoluíram, mas ainda assumem papéis de "missão social" de direção de mercado, muito além dos limites neoliberais. O ensaio também sugere como outros países em desenvolvimento podem aprender lições dessa experiência.


Palavras-chave


Desenvolvimento; Estado Desenvolvimentista; Neoliberalismo; Industrialização

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