Biofacies Analysis of the Upper Oligocene Deposits (Qom Formation) in Urumieh Dokhtar Zone, Iran

Iraj Maghfori Moghadam, Zohre Holakouee, Mehdi Yazdi, Bizhan Yousefi

Abstract


In order to determine the accurate paleoenvironmental conditions of Qom Formation, one stratigraphic section was studied in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Zone (West of Ashtian). 60 thin sections of the Qom Formation, 71 m thick, were prepared and the distribution of benthic foraminifera was analyzed. On the basis of the recognized foraminifera, the age of Qom Formation in the studied section is assigned to the Late Oligocene (Chattian). In this study, sex different biofacies and two lithofacies types have been recognized, that can be grouped into two depositional environments, back ramp (alluvium channel, lagoon and shoal) and the ramp (inner, middle and outer ramp). The alluvium channel is characterized by Gms (gravel with massive layering and abundant matrix). The shoal is represented by fine to medium sandstone: calcite cemented submature litharenite. The lagoon is dominated by the presence of bioclastic bryozoan corallinacea wackestone- packstone and bioclastic foraminifera corallinacean wackstone to packstone. The inner ramp is characterized by bioclastic benthic foraminifera (perforate and imperforate) wackestone-packstone and the middle ramp represented by bioclastic perforate foraminifera wackstone-packstone and bioclastic Operculina packstone. Outer ramp is characterized by bioclast benthic and planktonic foraminifera mudstone.

Keywords


Qom Formation; Miocene; Paleoenvironment; Ramp; Urumieh Dokhtar; Iran

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abaie, I.; Ansari, H.; Badakhshan, A. & Jaafari, A. 1964. History

and development of the Alborz and Sarajeh Fields of

Central Iran. Bulletin Iranian Petroleum Institute, 15:

-574.

Adams, T.D. & Bourgeois, F. 1967. Asmari biostratigraphy.

Geological and Exploration Division. Iranian Oil

Offshore Company Report number, 1074 (Unpublished).

Amin Rasouli, H. 2005. Sequence stratigraphy of the Qom

Formation in south Central Iran. PhD, Tarbyat Moalem

University, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).

Amirshahkarami, M. & Karavan, M. 2015. Microfacies models

and sequence stratigraphic architecture of the Oligocene Miocene Qom Formation, south of Qom City, Iran.

Geosciences Frontiers, 6: 593- 404.

Amirshahkarami, M.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H. & Taheri, A.

Sedimentary facies and sequence stratigraphy of

the Asmari Formation at Chaman-Bolbol, Zagros Basin,

Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 29: 947-959.

Bassi, D.; Hottinger, L. & Nebelsick, H. 2007. Larger

Foraminifera from the Upper Oligocene of the Upper

Oligocene of the Venetian area, northeast Italy,

Palaeontology, 5(4): 845-868.

Beavington-Penny, S.J. & Racey, A. 2004. Ecology of extant

nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera

application in paleoenvironmental analysis. Earth

Sciences Review, 67: 219-265.

Bozorgnia, F. 1966. Qum Formation stratigraphy of the Central

Basin of Iran and its intercontinental position. Bulletin

Iranian Petroleum Institute, 24: 69-76.

Brandona, M. & Corda, L. 2002. Nutrients, sea level and

tectonics, constrains for the facies architecture of a

Miocene carbonate ramp in central Italy. Terra Nova,

: 257-262.

Brandano, M.; Frezza, V.; Tomassetti, L. & Cuffaro, M.

Heterozoan carbonates in oligotrophic tropical

waters: The attard member of the Lower coralline

limestone Formation (Upper Malta). Palaeogeography,

Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 272: 1-10.

Brandano, M.; Morsilli, M.; Vannucci, G.; Parente, M.; Bosellini,

F. & Vicens, G. 2010. Rhodolith-rich lithofacies of the

Porto Badisco Calcarenites (Upper Chattian, Salento and Southern Italy). Italian Journal Geosciences,

(1): 119-131.

Burchette, T.P. & Wright, V.P. 1992. Carbonate ramp depositional

systems. Sedimentary Geology, 79(1-4): 3-57.

Corda, L. & Brandano, M. 2003. Aphotic zone carbonate

production on a Miocene ramp, central Apennines, Italy.

Sedimentary Geology, 161(1-2): 55-70.

Cosovic, V.; Drobne, K. & Moro, A. 2004. Paleoenvironmental

model for Eocene foraminiferal limestones of the

Adriatic carbonate platform (Istrian Peninsula). Facies,

(1): 61-75.

Daneshian, J. & Ramezani Dana, L. 2007. Early Miocene

benthic foraminifera and biostratigraphy of the Qom

Formation, Deh Namak, Central Iran. Journal of Asian

Earth Sciences, 29: 844-858.

Dunham, R.J. 1962. Classification of carbonate rocks according

to depositional texture. In: HAMM, W.E. (Ed.),

Classification of carbonate rocks: a symposium. AAPG,

: 108-121.

Ehrenberg, S.N.; Pickard, N.A.H.; Laursen, G.V.; Monibi,

S.; Mossadegh, Z.K.; Svana, T.A.; Aqrawi, A.A.M.;

McArthur, J.M. & Thirlwall, M.F. 2007. Strontium

isotope stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation

(Oligocene–Lower Miocene), SW Iran, Journal of

Petroleum Geology, l30: 107-128.

Emami, H. 1991. Geological Map of Qom, 1:00000, Geological

Survey of Iran.

Flügel, E. 2010. Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks, Analysis,

Interpretation and Application. Berlin, Springer-

Verlag, 976p.

Furrer, M. & Suder, P. 1955. The Oligo-Miocene marine

formation in the Qum region (Central Iran). In:

THE 4TH WORLD PETROLEUM CONGRESS

PROCEEDINGS, p. 267-277.

Geel. T. 2000. Recognition of stratigraphic sequence in

carbonate platform and slope: empirical models

based on microfacies analysis of Paleogene

deposits in southeastern Spain. Palaeogeography,

Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 155: 211-238.

Hallock, P. 1985. Why are larger Foraminifera larger?

Paleoobiology, 11: 195-208.

Hallock, P. 1999. Symbiont bearing foraminifera. In:

SEN GUPTA B.K. (Ed.), Modern foraminifera.

Amsterdam, Kluwer Academic, p. 123-139.

Hallock, P. & Glenn, E.C. 1986. Larger foraminifera: a tool for

paleoenvironmental analysis of Cenozoic depositional

facies. Palaios, 1: 55-64.

Heydari, E.; Hassanzadeh, J.; Wade, W.J. & Ghazi, A.M. 2003.

Permian–Triassic boundary interval in the Abadeh

section of Iran with implications for mass extinction.

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology,

: 405-423.

Karvan, M.; Mahboubi, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H. & Moussavi-

Harami, R. 2015. Sedimentary facies analysis and

sequence stratigraphy of Qom Formation deposits in NE

Delijan-NW Central Iran, Iran. Geosciences Journal,

(94): 237-248

Lee, J.J. 1990. Fine structure of rodophycean profyridium

purpureum insitu in Peneroplis pertusus and P.

asicularis. Journal of Foraminifera Researches,

: 162-169.

Loftus, W.K. 1855. On the geology of portions of the Turko-

Persian frontier and of the districts adjoining. The

Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London,

: 247-344.

Mateu-Vicens, G.; Hallock. P. & Brandano, M. 2009. Test

shape variability of Amphistegina d’Orbigny, 1826 as

a paleobathymetric proxy: application to two Miocene

examples. In: DEMCHUK, T. & GARY. A. (Eds.),

Geologic Problems Solving with Microfossils. SEPM

Special, 93: 67-82.

Miall. A.D. 2006. The Geology of Fluvial Deposits Sedimentary

Facies Basin Analysis and Petroleum Geology. Berlin,

Springer, 582p.

Mial, A.D. 1977. A review of braided river depositional

environment. Earth Science Reviews, 13: 1-62.

Mohammadi, E.; Hasanzadeh-Dastgerdi, M.; Ghaedi, M.;

Dehghan, R. Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Baizidi,

C. & Sfidari, E. 2013. The Tethyan Seaway Iranian

Plate Oligo-Miocene deposits (the Qom Formation):

distribution of Rupelian (Early Oligocene) and evaporate

deposits as evidences for timing and trending of

opening and closure of the Tethyan Seaway. Carbonate

Evaporite, 28: 321-345.

Mohammadi, M.; Kohansal Ghadimvand, N.; Vaziri, S.H. &

Mosavian, M. 2010. Facies analysis and depositional

environments of the Qom Formation in Vieh section,

south of Saveh. The 1st. International Applied Geological

Congress proceedings, 1: 2019- 2024.

Mohammadi, E.; Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Vaziri,

M.R. & Ghaedi, M. 2011. Microfacies analysis

and paleoenviornmental interpretation of the Qom

Formation, south of the Kashan, Central Iran. Carbonate

Evaporite, 26: 255-271.

Mohammadi, E.; Vaziri, M.R. & Dastanpour, M. 2013.

Biostratigraphy of the nummulitids and lepidocyclinids

bearing Qom Formation based on larger benthic

foraminifera (Sanandaj–Sirjan fore-arc basin and

Central Iran back-arc basin, Iran). Arabian Geosciences,

: 1136-1146.

Mossadegh, Z.K.; Haig, D.W.; Allan, T.; Hdabi, M.H & Sadeghi,

A. 2009. Salinity changes during late Oligocene to

early Miocene Asmari Formation deposition, Zagros

mountains, Iran. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,

Palaeoecology , 272: 17-36.

Murray, J.M. 1991. Ecology and Paleoecology of Benthic

Foraminifera. New York, Longman, 397p.

Nebelsick, J.H.; Rasser, M. & Bassi, D. 2005. Facies dynamics

in Eocene to Oligocene circumalpine carbonates.

Facies, 51: 197-216.

Nouradini, M.; Azami, S.H.; Hamad, M.; Yazdi, M. &

Ashouri, A.R. 2015. Foraminiferal paleoecology

and paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the lower

Miocene deposites of the Qom Formation in Northeastern

Isfahan, Central Iran. Boletin de la Sociedad Geolόgica

Mexicana, 67(1): 59-73.

Pomar, L. 2001. Types of carbonate platforms: a genetic

approach. Basin Research, 13: 313-334.

Rasser, M.W.; Scheibner, C. & Mutti, M. 2005.

Paleoenvironmental standard section for early Ilerdian

tropical carbonate factories (Corbieres, France;

Pyrenees, Spain). Facies, 51: 217-232.

Reiss, Z. & Hottinger, L. 1984. The Gulf of Aqaba: Ecological

Micropaleontology (Ecological Studies). Berlin,

Springer, 354p.

Renema, W. 2006. Large benthic foraminifera from the deep

photic zone of a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf of

East Kalimantan: Indonesia. Marine Micropaleontology,

: 73-82.

Reuter, M.; Piller, W.; Harzhauser, M.; Mandic, O.; Berning, B.; Rögl, F.; Kroh, A.; Aubry, M.P.; Wielandt-Schuster,

U. & Hamedani, A. 2009. The Oligo-Miocene Qom

Formation (Iran): evidence for an Early Burdigalian

restriction of the Tethyan Seaway and closure of its

Iranian gateways. International Journal of Earth

Sciences, 98: 627-650.

Romero, J.; Caus, E. & Rossel, J. 2002: A model for the

paleoenvironmental distribution of larger forazminifera

based on late Middle Eocene deposits on the margin of

the south Pyrenean basin (NE Spain). Palaeogeography,

Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 179: 43-56.

Rust, B.R. 1978. A classification of Alluvial channel system:

Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, 5: 187-198.

Sadeghi, R.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H. & Taheri, A. 2009.

Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Oligo-Miocene

succession in Fars and Khuzestan Areas (Zagros Basin,

SW Iran). Historical Biology, 20: 1-15.

Scholle, P.A.; Rather, M.A. & Ekdale, A.A. 1983. Pelagic

environment. American Association of Petroleum

Geologists, 33: 620-681.

Sedighi, M. 2008. Biostratigraphy and paleoenvironment of

Member C in south and southeast of Qom. Msc Thesis,

Isfahan University. (In Persian).

Seyrafian, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Arzani, N. & Azizolah,

T. 2011 Facies analysis of the Asmari Formation in

central and north-central Zagros basin, southwest Iran:

Biostratigraphy, paleoecology and diagenesis. Revista

Mexicana de Ciencias Geolόgicas, 28(3): 439-458.

Sooltanian, N. & Seyrafian, A. 2011 Biostratigraphy and paleoecological

implications in microfacies of the Asmari

Formation (Oligocene), Naura anticline (Interior Fars

of the Zagros Basin), Iran. Carbonates Evaporites, 26:

-180.

Tucker, M.E. 2001. Sedimentary Petrology: an introduction

to the origin of sedimentary rocks. London, Blackwell

Scientific Publication, 262p.

Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Kimiagari, M. & Taheri, A. 2006.

Depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy

of the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation in SW Iran.

Facies, 52(1): 41-51.

Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Seyrafian, A.; Taheri, A. & Motiei,

H. 2010. Oligocene-Miocene ramp system (Asmari

Formation) in the NW of the Zagros basin, Iran:

Microfacies, paleoenvironmental and depositional

sequence. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geolόgicas,

(1): 56-71.

Vaziri-Moghaddam, H. & Torabi, H. 2004. Biofacies and

sequence stratigraphy of the Oligocene succession,

Central Basin, Iran. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und

Paläontologie, 6: 321-344.

Wilson, M.E.J. & Vecsei, A. 2005. The apparent paradox

of abundant foramol facies in low latitudes: their

environmental significance and effect on platform

development. Earth Sciences Review, 69: 133-168.

Wynd, J. 1965. Biofacies of Iranian oil consortium agreement

area. Iranian Oil Offshore Company, Report 1082

(Unpublished).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.11137/2017_2_163_179

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.