Travel Motivation, Destination Image, and Stage of Intention to Visit Anak Krakatau Mount: a Study of Volcano Tourism in Indonesia

Usep Suhud, Mamoon Allan


This study aims to measure the impact of travel motivation and destination image on stage of intention to visit a volcano site, particularly Anak Krakatau. "Anak" means "child". This mount is a volcano created by the deadly eruption of the Krakatau volcano which killed 36,417 people in 1883 and had a wide-ranging impact on some of the world's ecosystems. This mountain is located on a small island between two large islands of Sumatra and Java, Indonesia. Anak Krakatau is more popular among domestic tourists. Data were collected using an online questionnaire platform and the study used a convenience sample of 250 participants. Data were analysed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, as well as structural equation model. Stage intention consisted of visit intention in the period of one, three, and five years and each of them were treated as individual variable unless for visit intention in a year due to insignificance. As a result, travel motivation had a significant impact on destination image and destination image significantly affects stage of intention.


Geotourism, Volcano tourism, Anak Krakatau, Destination management

Full Text:



Agustina, N.K.W. 2018, 'The influence of destination images on revisit intention in Mount Batur', Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 157-68.

Akbulut, G. 2014, 'Volcano tourism in Turkey', in G.A. Özpay (ed.), Volcanic tourist destinations, Springer, Berlin, pp. 89-102.

Allan, M. & Shavanddasht, M. 2019,'Rural geotourists segmentation by motivation in weekends and weekdays', Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 74-84, DOI:10.1177/1467358417694513.

Aquino, R.S. 2015, 'Understanding visitor perspectives on volcano tourism at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines: A mixed methods study', Master dissertation, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.

Aquino, R.S., Schänzel, H.A. & Hyde, K.F. 2019, 'Analysing push and pull motives for volcano tourism at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines', Geoheritage, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 177-91, DOI:10.1007/s12371-017-0254-z.

Beirman, D. 2017, Bali tourism and the Mt Agung Volcano: Quick dollars or long term reputation, the conversation, viewed 3 July 2020, .

Chaulagain, S., Wiitala, J. & Fu, X. 2019, 'The impact of country image and destination image on US tourists’ travel intention', Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, vol. 12, 111, DOI:10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.01.005.

Cheung, L.T.O. 2016, 'The effect of geopark visitors’ travel motivations on their willingness to pay for accredited geo-guided tours', Geoheritage, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 201-9, DOI:10.1007/s12371-015-0154-z.

Choe, J.Y. & Hitchcock, M. 2018, 'Pilgrimage to Mount Bromo, Indonesia', in D.H. Olson & A. Trono (eds), Religious pilgrimage routes and trails: Sustainable development and management, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 151-95.

Chrobak, A., Ugolini, F., Pearlmutter, D. & Raschi, A. 2020, 'Thermal tourism and geoheritage: Examining visitor motivations and perceptions', Resources, vol. 9, no. 5, 58, DOI:10.3390/resources9050058.

Chylińska, D. 2019, 'The role of the picturesque in geotourism and iconic geotourist landscapes', Geoheritage, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 531-43, DOI:10.1007/s12371-018-0308-x.

Cooper, M. 2010, 'Krakatau, Indonesia', in P. Erfurt-Cooper & M. Cooper (eds), Volcano and geothermal tourism: Sustainable geo-resources for leisure and recreation, Earthscan, London, pp. 200-202.

Crompton, J.L. 1979, 'Motivations for pleasure vacation', Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 408-24, DOI:10.1016/0160-7383(79)90004-5.

Davis, S., Anshuka, A.K., Duley, S., Huff, M. & Logan, C. 2013, 'Managing risk and allure at volcanoes in Hawaii: How close is too close?', GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, vol. 12 no. 2, pp. 85-93.

Dóniz-Páez, F.J. 2014, 'Reflections on the volcano tourism. The case of the Canary Islands, Spain', PASOS: Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 467-78, DOI:10.25145/j.pasos.2014.12.034.

Dowling, R. & Allan, M. 2018, 'Who are geotourists? A case study from Jordan,' in R. Dowling & D. Newsome (eds), Handbook of Geotourism, Edward Elgar Publishing, Australia, pp. 76-86.

Dowling, R. 2010, 'Emerging volcano and geothermal related tourism in Iceland', in in P. Erfurt-Cooper & M. Cooper (eds), Volcano and geothermal tourism: Sustainable geo-resources for leisure and recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 209-20.

Echtner, C.M. & Ritchie, J.R.B. 1993, 'The measurement of destination image: An empirical assessment', Journal of Travel Research, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 3-13, DOI:10.1177/004728759303100402.

Edelmann, J. & Roscoe, R. 2010, 'Volcano tourism in Ethiopia and the Danakil rift zone', in P. Erfurt-Cooper & M. Cooper (eds), Volcano and geothermal tourism: Sustainable geo-resources for leisure and recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 59-67.

Erfurt-Cooper, P. & Cooper, M. (eds) 2010, Volcano and geothermal tourism: Sustainable geo-resources for leisure and recreation, Earthscan, London.

Erfurt-Cooper, P. 2010, 'Volcano and geothermal tourism in Kyushu, Japan', in in P. Erfurt-Cooper & M. Cooper (eds), Volcano and geothermal tourism: Sustainable geo-resources for leisure and recreation, Earthscan, London, pp. 152-64.

Erfurt-Cooper, P. 2014, 'Volcano tourism at Mount Batur in Bali, Indonesia', in P. Erfurt-Cooper (ed.), Volcanic tourist destinations, Springer, Berlin, pp. 209-15.

Ernawati, H., Soeroso, A., Annisa, R.N. & Wibowo, F.X.S. 2018, 'Measuring destination image on tourism river area the case of Gua Pindul', Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 1-24, DOI:10.9734/JESBS/2018/45216.

Gaki-Papanastassiou, K. & Papanastassiou, D. 2014, 'Volcano tourism in Greece: Two case studies of volcanic islands' in P. Erfurt-Cooper (ed.), Volcanic tourist destination, Springer, Berlin, pp. 69-87.

Ghazi, J.M., Ólafsdóttir, R., Tongkul, F. & Ghazi, J.M. 2012, 'Geological features for geotourism in the western part of Sahand Volcano, NW Iran', Geoheritage, vol. 5, no. 1, pp.23-34, DOI:10.1007/s12371-012-0071-3.

González, J.A.A. 2011 'Turismo, información, cambio climático: el caso del Parque Nacional Volcan Poas, Costa Rica', PASOS: Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 519-30, DOI:10.25145/j.passos.2011.09.051.

Green, B.C. & Jones, I. 2005, 'Serious leisure, social identity and sport tourism', Sport in Society, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 164-81.

Grobbelaar, L., Bouwer, S. & Hermann, U.P. 2019, 'An exploratory investigation of visitor motivations to the Barberton-Mokhonjwa Geotrail, South Africa', Geo Journal of Tourism and Geosites, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 283-92, DOI:10.30892/gtg.25101-359.

Habibi, N., Lukihardianti, A. & Ridwan, M.F. 2019, 127 gunung api aktif di Indonesia, 19 di Pulau Jawa, Republika, viewed 30 June 2020, .

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. & Anderson, R.E. 2019, Multivariate data analysis, 8th edn, Cengage Learning, Hampshire.

Hu, L. & Bentler, P.M. 1995, 'Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications', in R. Hoyle (ed.), Evaluating model fit, Sage, London, pp. 76-99.

Hu, L. & Bentler, P.M. 1999, 'Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives', Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-55, DOI:10.1080/10705519909540118.

Hurtado, H., Dowling, R. & Sanders, D. 2014, 'An exploratory study to develop a geotourism typology model', International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 608-13, DOI:10.1002/jtr.1954.

Jolly, G.E., Keys, H.J.R., Procter, J.N. & Deligne, N.I. 2014, 'Overview of the co-ordinated risk-based approach to science and management response and recovery for the 2012 eruptions of Tongariro volcano, New Zealand', Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol. 286, pp. 184-207, DOI:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.08.028.

Joyce, E.B. 2010, 'Volcano tourism in the new kanawinka global geopark of victoria and SE South Australia', in P. Erfurt-Cooper & M. Cooper (eds), Volcano and geothermal tourism: Sustainable geo-resources for leisure and recreation, Earthscan, London, pp. 302-11.

Junaidi, A.A., Widjaja, F.N. & Andajani, E. 2017, 'The effect of Yogyakarta destination image on behavioral intentions on domestic tourist', Journal of Management and Business, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 88-96, DOI:10.24123/jmb.v16i1.294.

Khan, M.J., Chelliah, S. & Ahmed, S. 2017, 'Factors influencing destination image and visit intention among young women travellers: Role of travel motivation, perceived risks, and travel constraints', Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1139-55, DOI:10.1080/10941665.2017.1374985.

Lee, K., Bentley, J. & Hsu, H.-Y. 2017, 'Using characteristics of serious leisure to classify rock climbers: A latent profile analysis', Journal of Sport & Tourism, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 245-62, DOI:10.1080/14775085.2017.1327369.

Mei, E. Harijoko, A. Setiawan, N. & Riasasi, W. 2020, 'Tourists’ perception on volcanic hazard and risk in Guci hot spring, Slamet Volcano, Indonesia', IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 412, no. 1, 012012, DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/412/1/012012.

Newsome, D. 2010, 'The need for a planning framework to preserve the wilderness values of Sibayak Volcano, North Sumatra, Indonesia', in P. Erfurt-Cooper & M. Cooper (eds), Volcano and geothermal tourism: Sustainable geo-resources for leisure and recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 141-51.

Phuc, L.T., Tachihara, H., Honda, T., Tuat, L.T., Thom, B.V., Hoang, N., & Chikano Y. 2018. 'Geological values of lava caves in Krongno volcano geopark, Dak Nong, Vietnam', Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 299-319, DOI:10.15625/0866-7187/40/4/13101.

Prayogo, R.R., Ketaren, F.L.S. & Hati, R.M. 2016, 'Electronic word of mouth, destination image, and satisfaction toward visit intention: An empirical study in Malioboro street, Yogyakarta', in R.R. Prayogo, F.L.S. Ketaren, R.M. Hati (eds), Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Social and Political Development (ICOSOP 2016), Atlantis Press, Bandung, pp. 209-18.

Rahayuningsih, H., Yuniarti, K.W. & Priyambodo, T.K. 2017, 'An exploratory study of tourists photo taking behavior at Nglanggeran ancient volcano, Gunungkidul, Indonesia', in A. Saufi, I. Andilolo, N. Othman & A. Lew (eds), Balancing development and sustainability in tourism destinations, Springer, pp. 199-209, DOI:10.1007/978-981-10-1718-6_20.

Sagala, S. Rosyidie, A., Pratama, A., Wimbardana, R. & Wijayanti, A. 2012, 'Promoting volcano tourism in hazard zone area for rebuilding local economy: Case study of tourism in Cangkringan Sub-District, Mt. Merapi, Yogyakarta, Merapi, Yogyakarta', International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment, Yogyakarta, pp. 1-13.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H. & Müller, H. 2003, 'Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures', Methods of Psychological Research Online, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 23-74.

Struck, A. 2010, 'Volcano tourism and its influence on the territory of Mt Etna (Italy)–Explored with digressions to Stromboli (Italy)', in P. Erfurt-Cooper & M. Cooper (eds), Volcano and geothermal tourism: Sustainable geo-resources for leisure and recreation, Routledge, London, pp. 229-40.

Suhud, U. & Allan, M. 2019, 'Exploring the impact of travel motivation and constraint on stage of readiness in the context of volcano tourism', Geoheritage, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 927-34, DOI:10.1007/s12371-018-00340-3.

Suhud, U. & Willson, G. 2018, 'The image of India as a travel destination and the attitude of viewers towards Indian TV dramas', African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1-13.

Suhud, U. 2014, A moment to give, no moment to take: A mixed-methods study on volunteer tourism marketing, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Tabachnick, B.G., Fidell, L.S. & Ullman, J.B. 2007, Using multivariate statistics, Pearson, Boston.

Tsiotsou, R. H. Byon, K. K., Zhang, J. 2010. Development of a scale measuring destination image, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 28, no. 4, 25, DOI:10.1108/02634501011053595.

Wang, L., Tian, L., Wen, X., Zhao, L., Song, J., Sun, M., Wang, H., Lan, Y. & Sun, M. 2014, 'Geoconservation and geotourism in Arxan-Chaihe Volcano Area, Inner Mongolia, China', Quaternary International, vol. 349, pp. 384-91, DOI:10.1016/j.quaint.2014.06.024.

Wang, Y., Huang, S. & Kim, A.K. 2015, 'Toward a framework integrating authenticity and integrity in heritage tourism', Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1468-81, DOI:10.1080/09669582.2015.1047375.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Indexers and Bibliographic Databases

Social Media

SCImago Journal & Country Rank
24th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Google Scholar
 Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.