Depositional Sequences of the Itararé Group in the Region of Mafra (SC) and their Regional Correlation

Ronaldo Paulo Kraft, Fernando Farias Vesely, Luiz Carlos Weinschütz


The Itararé Group, Permocarboniferous of the Paraná Basin, has its deposition associated with the Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA), which encompassed multiple glacial advance-retreat cycles. Recognizing the nature of the processes that form these rocks is essential to understand the diversity of glacial and non-glacial depositional systems that were active during the LPIA. Previous authors have carried out sedimentological and stratigraphic studies in outcrops of the Itararé Group in the Santa Catarina and Paraná states, however, the integration between these areas and the delimitation of glacial cycles is still little known. Seeking to increase the knowledge on the stratigraphy of the Itararé Group, this work aims to investigate its facies in five shallow boreholes in the Mafra region, northern Santa Catarina state. In this region, 300 meters of cores sampled almost the entire stratigraphic succession of the Itararé Group. We further integrate our results with published data from Alfredo Wagner, Vidal Ramos, Presidente Getúlio, Doutor Pedrinho and São João do Triunfo in order to build a regional stratigraphic framework. A total of 33 sedimentary facies were recognized and organized in five genetic associations, corresponding to subaqueous outwash fans, rain-out and mud settling, thin-bedded turbidites, mass- transport deposits, and thick-bedded turbidites. The regional stratigraphic correlation allowed the recognition of 5 glacial cycles, corresponding to depositional sequences of deglaciation. They show signs of glacial influence that diminish toward the top, where deltaic deposits developed as climatic conditions improved. Diamictites are present in all areas and distributed preferentially in the lower and middle sequences. They consist of mass- transport deposits with origin attributed to gravitational instability due to sediment accumulation in melting and glacial retreat phases.


Late paleozoic ice age; Glacial cycles; Stratigraphic framework

Full Text:



Adami-Rodrigues, K., Pazinato, P.G., Corrêa, R.C., Ricetti, J.H. & Weinschütz, L.C. 2012, ‘Malacostraca da Formação Rio do Sul, Grupo Itararé, Bacia do Paraná, Mafra, SC, Brasil’, 1º Simpósio Brasileiro de Paleoinvertebrados, Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia, Bauru, p. 19.

Aquino, C., Valdez, V.B., Faccini, U.F., Milana, J.P. & Paim, P.S.G. 2016, ‘Facies and depositional architecture according to a jet efflux model of a late Paleozoic tidewater grounding-line system from the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin), southern Brazil’, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol. 67, pp. 180-200, DOI:10.1016/j.jsames.2016.02.008

Bennett, M.R., Doyle, P. & Mather, A.E. 1996, ‘Dropstones: their origin and significance’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 121, no. 3-4, pp. 331-9, DOI:10.1016/0031-0182(95)00071-2

Boulton, G.S. 1986, ‘Push-moraines and glacier-contact fans in marine and terrestrial environments’, Sedimentology, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 677-98, DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1986.tb01969.x

Bouma, A.H. 2004, ‘Key controls on the characteristics of turbidite systems’, in S.A. Lomas & P. Joseph (eds), Confined Turbidite Systems, Geological Society, London, vol. 222, pp. 9-22, DOI:10.1144/GSL.SP.2004.222.01.02

Carvalho, B.M.V. 2014, ‘Confined turbidite sand-sheets in the Paraná and Paganzo Basins’, MSc. dissertation, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, São Leopoldo.

Castro, J.C., Weinschütz, L.C. & Castro, M.R. 2005, ‘Estratigrafia de sequências das formações Taciba e Rio Bonito (Membro Triunfo) na região de Mafra/SC, leste da Bacia do Paraná’, Boletim de Geociências da Petrobras, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 27-42.

d’Avila, R.S.F. 2009, ‘Sequências deposicionais do Grupo Itararé (Carbonífero e Eopermiano), Bacia do Paraná, na área de Dr. Pedrinho e cercanias, Santa Catarina, Brasil: turbiditos, pelitos e depósitos caóticos’, PhD thesis, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, São Leopoldo.

Eyles, C.H. & Eyles, N. 2000, ‘Subaqueous mass flow origin for Lower Permian diamictites and associated facies of the Grant Group, Barbwire Terrace, Canning Basin, Western Australia’, Sedimentology, vol. 47, no. 2 pp. 343-56, DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3091.2000.00295.x

Eyles, C.H., Eyles, N. & França, A.B. 1993, ‘Glaciation and tectonics in an active intracratonic basin: the Late Palaeozoic Itararé Group, Parana Basin, Brazil’, Sedimentology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1-25, DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1993.tb01087.x

Eyles, C.H., Eyles, N. & Miall, A.D. 1985, ‘Models of glaciomarine sedimentation and their application to the interpretation of ancient glacial sequences’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 51, no. 1-4, pp. 15-84, DOI:10.1016/0031-0182(85)90080-X

Eyles, N., Eyles, C.H. & Miall, A.D. 1983, ‘Lithofacies types and vertical profile models; an alternative approach to the description and environmental interpretation of glacial diamict and diamictite sequences’, Sedimentology, vol. 30, pp. 393-410.

Fallgatter, C. & Paim, P.S.G. 2019, ‘On the origin of the Itararé Group basal nonconformity and its implications for the Late Paleozoic glaciation in the Paraná Basin, Brazil’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 531, e108225, DOI:10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.02.039

Fielding, C.R., Frank, T.D. & Isbell, J.L. 2008, ‘The late Paleozoic ice age - A review of current understanding and synthesis of global climate patterns’, in C.R. Fielding, T.D. Frank & J.L. Isbell (eds), Resolving the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in Time and Space, Geological Society, America, vol. 441, pp. 343–54, DOI:10.1130/2008.2441(24)

França, A.B. & Potter, P.E. 1988, ‘Estratigrafia, ambiente deposicional e análise de reservatório do Grupo Itararé (Permocarbonífero, Bacia do Paraná (Parte 1)’, Boletim de Geociências da Petrobrás, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 147-91.

Gilbert, R. 1990, ‘Rafting in glacimarine environments’, in J.A. Dowdeswell & J.D. Scourse (eds), Glacimarine environments: Processes and Sediments, Geological Society, London, vol. 53, pp. 105-20, DOI:10.1144/GSL.SP.1990.053.01.06

Hambrey, M.J. & Glasser, N.F. 2012, ‘Discriminating glacier thermal and dynamic regimes in the sedimentary record’, Sedimentary Geology, vol. 251-252, pp. 1-33, DOI:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.01.008

Hamel, M.-H. 2005, ‘A new lower actinopterygian from the Early Permian of the Paraná Basin, Brazil’, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 19-26.

Holz, M., França, A.B., Souza, P.A., Iannuzzi, R. & Rohn, R. 2010, ‘A stratigraphic chart of the Late Carboniferous/Permian succession of the eastern border of the Paraná Basin, Brazil, South America’, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 381-99, DOI:10.1016/j.jsames.2009.04.004

Isbell, J.L., Lenaker, P.A., Askin, R.A., Miller, M.F. & Babcock, L.E. 2003, ‘Reevaluation of the timing and extent of late Paleozoic glaciation in Gondwana: Role of the Transantarctic Mountains’, Geology, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 977-80, DOI:10.1130/G19810.1

Kneller, B., Dykstra, M., Fairweather, L. & Milana, J.P. 2016, ‘Mass-transport and slope accommodation: Implications for turbidite sandstone reservoirs’, AAPG Bulletin, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 213-35, DOI:10.1306/09011514210

Kuenen, PH.H. 1957, ‘Sole markings of graded graywacke beds’, The Journal of Geology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 231-58.

Kuenen, PH.H. & Migliorini, C.I. 1950, ‘Turbidity currents as a cause of graded bedding’, The Journal of Geology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 91-127.

Lønne, I. 1995, ‘Sedimentary facies and depositional architecture of ice-contact glaciomarine systems’, Sedimentary Geology, vol. 98, no. 1-4, pp. 13-43, DOI:10.1016/0037-0738(95)00025-4

Miall A.D. 1978, ‘Lithofacies types and vertical profiles models in braided river deposits: a summary’, in A.D. Miall (ed.), Fluvial Sedimentology, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Calgary, pp. 597-604.

Milani, E.J., Melo, J.H.G. de, Souza, P.A. de, Fernandes, L.A. & França, A.B. 2007, ‘ Bacia do Paraná’, Boletim de Geociências da Petrobras, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 265-87.

Miller, J.M.G. 1996, ‘Glacial sediments’, in H.G. Reading (ed), Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy, 3rd edn, Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp. 454-84.

Mouro, L.D., Fernandes, A.C.S., Carvalho, M.A. & Weinschütz, L.C. 2018, ‘O Folhelho Lontras (Permiano, Bacia do Paraná) e seus fósseis: descoberta, identificação e conhecimento atual’, Anuário do Instituto de Geociências – UFRJ, vol. 41, no. 2 pp. 636-46, DOI:10.11137/2018_2_636_646

Mouro, L.D., Fernandes, A.C.S., Rogerio, D.W. & Fonseca, V.M. 2014, ‘First articulated sponge from the Paleozoic of Brazil, and a new organization of the order Hemidiscosa’, Journal of Paleontology, vol. 88, no.1 pp. 171–8, DOI:10.1666/12-108

Mouro, L.D., Zaton, M., Fernandes, A.C.S. & Waichel, B.L. 2016, ‘Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana’ Nature Scientific Reports, vol. 6, e19215, DOI:10.1038/srep19215

Mulder, T. & Alexander, J. 2001, ‘The physical character of subaqueous sedimentary density flows and their deposits’, Sedimentology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 269-99, DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3091.2001.00360.x

Mulder, T. & Syvitski, J.P.M. 1995, ‘Turbidity currents generated at river mouths during exceptional discharges to the world oceans’, The Journal of Geology, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 285-99, DOI:10.1086/629747

Mulder, T., Syvitski, J.P.M., Migeon, S., Faugères, J.-C. & Savoye, B. 2003, ‘Marine hyperpycnal flows: initiation, behavior and related deposits. A review’, Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 20, no. 6-8, pp. 861-82, DOI:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2003.01.003

Mutti, E. & Ricci Lucchi, F. 1972, ‘Turbidites of the northern Apennines: introduction to facies analysis (English translation by T.H. Nilson, 1978)’, International Geology Review, vol. 20, pp. 125-66.

Nelson, C.H., Escutia, C., Damuth, J.E. & Twichell, D. 2011, ‘Interplay of Mass-Transport and turbidite-system deposits in different active tectonic and passive continental margin settings: external and local controlling factors’, in R.C. Shipp, P. Weimer & H.W. Posamentier (eds), Mass-Transport Deposits in Deepwater Settings, Society for Sedimentary Geology, vol. 96, pp. 39-66, DOI:10.2110/sepmsp.096.039

Nemec, W., Steel, R.J., Gjelberg, J., Collinson, J.D., Prestholm, E. & Oxnevad, I.E. 1988, ‘Anatomy of collapsed and re-established delta front in Lower Cretaceous of Eastern Spitsbergen: gravitational sliding and sedimentation processes’, AAPG Bulletin, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 454-76.

Normark, W.R. 1970, ‘Growth patterns of deep-sea fans’, AAPG Bulletin, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 2170-95.

Normark, W.R. 1978, ‘Fan valleys, channels, and depositional lobes on modern submarine fans: characters for recognition of Sandy turbidite environments’, AAPG Bulletin, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 912-31.

Owen, G. 1987, ‘Deformation processes in unconsolidated sands’, in M.E. Jones & R.M.F. Preston (eds), Deformation of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks, Geological Society, London, vol. 29, pp. 11-24, DOI:10.1144/GSL.SP.1987.029.01.02

Owen, G. 2003, ‘Load structures: gravity-driven sediment mobilization in the shallow subsurface’, in V. Rensbergen, R.R. Hillis, A.J. Maltan & C.K. Morley, Subsurface Sediment Mobilization, Geological Society, London, vol. 216, pp. 21-34, DOI:10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.216.01.03

Perrotta, M.M., Salvador, E.D., Lopes, R.C., D’Agostino, L.Z., Wildner, W., Ramgrab, G.E., Peruffo, N., Freitas, M.A., Gomes, S.D., Chieregati, L.A., Silva, L.C., Sachs, L.L.B., Silva, V.A., Batista, I.H. & Marcondes, P.E.P. 2004, ‘Folha Curitiba SG-22’, in C. Schobbenhaus, J.H. Gonçalves, J.O.S. Santos, M.B. Abram, R. Leão Neto, G.M.M. Matos, R.M. Vidotti, M.A.B. Ramos & J.D.A. de Jesus (eds), Carta Geológica do Brasil ao Milionésimo, Sistema de Informações Geográficas, Programa Geologia do Brasil, Brasília, CD-ROM.

Puigdomenech, C.G, Carvalho, B., Paim, P.S.G. & Faccini U.F. 2014, ‘Lowstand Turbidites and Delta Systems of the Itararé Group in the Vidal Ramos region (SC), southern Brazil’ Brazilian Journal of Geology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 529-44, DOI:10.5327/Z23174889201400040002

Ricetti, J.H.Z., Adami-Rodrigues, K. & Weinschütz, L.C. 2012, ‘Blattidas (Insecta) do Folhelho Lontras, base da Formação Rio do Sul da Bacia do Paraná’, 1º Simpósio Brasileiro de Paleoinvertebrados, Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia, Bauru, p. 66.

Ricetti, J.H.Z. & Weinschütz, L.C. 2011, ‘Ocorrência de escolecodontes (Annelida, Labidognatha) nas formações Mafra e Rio do Sul, Permo-Carbonífero da Bacia do Paraná, Brasil’ XII Reunião regional de paleontologia dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, PALEO 2010 , Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia, Cascavel, pp. 31-2.

Rodrigues, M.C.N.L., Trzaskos, B., Alsop, G.I. & Vesely, F.F. 2020, ‘Making a homogenite: An outcrop perspective into the evolution of deformation within mass-transport deposits’, Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 112, e104033, DOI:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.104033

Rosa, E.L.M., Vesely, F.F. & França, A.B. 2016, ‘A review on late Paleozoic ice-related erosional landforms in the Paraná Basin: origin and paleogeographical implications’, Brazilian Journal of Geology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 147-66, DOI:10.1590/2317-4889201620160050

Rust, B.R. & Romanelli, R. 1975, ‘Late Quaternary subaqueous outwash deposits near Ottawa, Canada’, in A.V. Jopling & B.C. McDonald (eds), Glaciofluvial and Glaciolacustrine Sedimentation Society of Sedimentary Geology, vol. 23, pp. 177-92, DOI:10.2110/pec.75.23.0177

Salamuni, R., Marques Filho, P.L. & Sobanski, A. 1966, ‘Considerações sobre turbiditos da Formação Itararé (Carbonífero Superior), Rio Negro – PR e Mafra – SC’, Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 5-31.

Santos, P.R., Rocha Campos, A.C. & Canuto, J.R. 1996, ‘Patterns of late Palaeozoic deglaciation in the Paraná Basin, Brazil’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 125, no. 1-4, pp. 165-84, DOI:10.1016/S0031-0182(96)00029-6

Schemiko, D.C.B., Vesely, F.F. & Rodrigues, M.C.N.L. 2019, ‘Deepwater to fluvio-deltaic stratigraphic evolution of a deglaciated depocenter: The early Permian Rio do Sul and Rio Bonito formations, southern Brazil’, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol. 95, e102260, DOI:10.1016/j.jsames.2019.102260

Schneider, R.L., Muhlmann, H., Tommasi, E., Medeiros, R.S., Daemon, R.F. & Nogueira, A.A. 1974, ‘Revisão estratigráfica da Bacia do Paraná’, 28° Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, SBG, Porto Alegre, pp. 41-66.

Sobiesiak, M.S., Kneller, B., Alsop, G.I. & Milana, J.P. 2016, ‘Internal deformation and kinematic indicators within a tripartite mass transport deposit, NW Argentina’, Sedimentary Geology, vol. 344, pp. 364-81, DOI:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2016.04.006

Suss, J.F., Vesely, F.F., Santa Catharina, A., Assine, M.L. & Paim, P.S.G. 2014, ‘O Grupo Itararé (Neocarbonífero-Eopermiano) entre Porto Amazonas (PR) e Mafra (SC): Sedimentação Gravitacional em contexto marinho deltáico com influência glacial’, Geociências, vol. 33, no. 04, pp. 701-19.

Taboada, A.C., Neves, J.P., Weinschütz, L.C., Pagani, M.A. & Simões, M.G. 2016, ‘Eurydesma–Lyonia fauna (Early Permian) from the Itararé group, Paraná Basin (Brazil): A paleobiogeographic W–E trans-Gondwanan marine connection’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 449, pp. 431-54, DOI:10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.02.022

Thomas, G.S.P. & Connel, R.J. 1985, ‘Iceberg drop, dump, and grounding structures from Pleistocene glacio-lacustrine sediments, Scotland’, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 243-49, DOI:10.1306/212F8689-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D

Valdez, V.B., Aquino, C.D., Paim, P.S.G., Souza, P.A., Mori, A.L., Fallgatter, C., Milana, J.P. & Kneller, B. 2019, ‘Late Palaeozoic glacial cycles and subcycles in western Gondwana: Correlation of surface and subsurface data of the Paraná Basin, Brazil’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 531, e108435, DOI:10.1016/j.palaeo.2017.09.004

Vesely, F.F. 2006, ‘Dinâmica sedimentar e arquitetura estratigráfica do Grupo Itararé (Carbonífero-Permiano) no centro-leste da Bacia do Paraná’, PhD thesis, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba.

Vesely, F.F. & Assine, M.L. 2006, ‘Deglaciation sequences in the Permo-Carboniferous Itararé Group, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil’, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 156–68, DOI:10.1016/j.jsames.2006.09.006

Vesely, F.F., Kraft, R.P., Mattos, T.R., Schemiko, D.C.B., Berton, F., Monteiro, L.B. & Yamassaki, H.S. 2021, ‘Os primeiros turbiditos do Brasil’, Boletim Paranaense de Geociências, vol. 78, pp. 110-29, DOI:10.5380/geo.v78i0.79539

Vesely, F.F., Rodrigues, M.C.N.L., Rosa, E.L.M., Amato, J.A., Trzaskos, B., Isbell, J.L. & Fedorchuk, N.D. 2018, ‘Recurrent emplacement of non-glacial diamictite during the late Paleozoic ice age’, Geology, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 615-8, DOI:10.1130/G45011.1

Vesely, F.F., Rostirolla, S.P., Appi, C.J. & Kraft, R.P. 2007, ‘Late Paleozoic glacially related sandstone reservoirs in the Paraná Basin, Brazil’, AAPG Bulletin, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 151-60, DOI:10.1306/09250605085

Vesely, F.F., Trzaskos, B., Kipper, F., Assine, M.L. & Souza, P.A. 2015, ‘Sedimentary record of a fluctuating ice margin from the Pennsylvanian of western Gondwana: Paraná Basin, southern Brazil’, Sedimentary Geology, vol. 326, pp. 45-63, DOI:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2015.06.012

Walker, R.G. 1978, ‘Deep-water sandstone facies and ancient submarine fans: models for exploration for stratigraphic traps’, AAPG Bulletin, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 932-66, DOI:10.1306/C1EA4F77-16C9-11D7-8645000102C1865D

Weinschütz, L.C. & Castro, J.C. 2004, ‘Arcabouço cronoestratigráfico da Formação Mafra (intervalo médio) na região de Rio Negro/PR – Mafra/SC, borda leste da bacia do Paraná’, Revista Escola de Minas, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 151-6, DOI:10.1590/S0370-44672004000300003

Weinschütz, L.C. & Castro, J.C. 2005, ‘A sequência Mafra Superior/ Rio do Sul Inferior (Grupo Itararé, Permocarbonífero) em sondagens testemunhadas da região de Mafra (SC), margem leste da Bacia do Paraná’, Geociências, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 131-41.

Weinschütz, L.C. & Castro, J.C. 2006, ‘Sequências deposicionais da Formação Taciba (Grupo Itararé, Neocarbonífero a Eopermiano) na região de Mafra (SC), Bacia do Paraná’, Revista Brasileira de Geociências, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 243-52.

Wilner, E., Lemos, V.B. & Scomazzon, A.K. 2016, ‘Associações naturais de conodontes Mesogondolella spp., Grupo Itararé, Cisuraliano da Bacia do Paraná’, Gaea Journal of Geoscience, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 30-6, DOI:10.4013/gaea.2016.91.02

Zavala, C. & Arcuri, M. 2016, ‘Intrabasinal and extrabasinal turbidites: Origin and distinctive characteristics. Sedimentary Geology, vol. 337, pp. 36-54, DOI:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2016.03.008

Zavala, C. & Pan, S.X. 2018, ‘Hyperpycnal flows and hyperpycnites: Origin and distinctive characteristics’, Lithologic Reservoirs, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1-27.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Indexers and Bibliographic Databases

Social Media

SCImago Journal & Country Rank
24th percentile
Powered by  Scopus
Google Scholar
 Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.