Reflexões sobre o mos maiorum do regime de Sula.

CARLOS HEREDIA CHIMENO

Resumo


O regime de Lúcio Cornélio Sula (cos. 88, 80 a.C.) envolve a construção de um novo mos maiorum, o resultado final de toda a dinâmica belicosa após o Bellum Sociale (91-87 a.C.). Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre o caráter do novum mos silano, contrastando-o com o mos maiorum da primeira década do primeiro século aC.


Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


ABERSON, M. Temples votifs et butin de guerre dans la Rome républicaine. Roma: Quasar, 1994.

ACHARD, G. L'emploi de boni, boni viri, boni cives et de leurs formes superlatives dans l'action politique de Cicéron. Études Classiques. v. 4, 1973. p. 207-221.

AGAMBEN, G. Homo sacer: sovereign power and bare life. Stanford: Standford University Press, 1998.

ANDERSON, B. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London-New York: Verso, 2009.

ARENA, V. Mos maiorum. in: BEVIR, M. Encyclopedia of Political Theory 1. Berkeley: Sage, 2010, p. 40-41.

______. Libertas and the Practice of Politics in the Late Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

______. Informal Norms, Values, and Social Control in the Roman Participatory Context. in: HAMMER, D. A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. p. 217-238.

ASSENMAKER, P. Les grandes individus dans les guerres civiles: une nouvelle architecture normative? in: ITGENSHORST, T.; LE DOZE, P. Les normes sous la République et le Haut-Empire romains. Élaboration, diffusion et contournements, Bordeaux: Scripa Antiqua, 2017. p. 463-481.

ASTIN, A.E. Regimen morum. JRS. v. 78, 1988, p. 14-34.

BABEAU, O. Le Manager et la Transgression Ordinaire des Regles: le cas des societes de conseil en management. Gestion et management. Paris: Université Paris Dauphine, 2007.

BADIAN, E. Lucius Sulla: The Deadly Reformer. Sidney: Sidney University Press, 1970.

______. Tribuni Plebis and Res Publica. in: LINDERSKI, J. Imperium Sine Fine. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1996. p. 187-213.

BATSTONE, W. Word at War: the Prequel. in: BREED, B.; DAMON, C.; ROSSI, A. Citizens of Discord: Rome and its Civil Wars. Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. p. 45-71.

BAUMAN, R. The Crimen Maiestatis in the Roman Republic and the Augustan Principate. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand, 1967.

______. Political Legitimacy. in: NASH, K.; SCOTT, A. The Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001. p. 107-116.

BEETHAM, D. The Legitimation of Power. London: Macmillan, 1991.

BEHR, H. Die Selbstdarstellung Sullas: ein aristokratischer Politiker zwischen pers¶nlichem Führungsanspruch und Standessolidarität. Frankfurt: Internationaler Verlag der Wissenchaften, 1993.

BERGER, A. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Roman Law. Philadelphia: Lawbook, 1953.

BETTINI, M. A proposito dei ‘buoni costumi'. Mos, mores e mos maiorum. in: Simón, F.M., et al. Repúblicas y ciudadanos: modelos de participación cívica en el mundo antiguo. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, 2006. p. 191-206.

______. Mos, Mores, and Mos Maiorum: the invention of morality in Roman Culture. in: BETTINI, M. The Ears of Hermes: Communication, Images, and Identity in the Classical World. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2011. p. 87-130.

BLEICKEN, J. Lex Publica. Recht und Gesetz in der romischen Republik. Berlin-New York: De Gruyter, 1975.

BLÖSEL, W. Die Geschichte des Begriffes mos maiorum von den Anfängen bis zu Cicero. in: LINKE, B.; STEMMLER, M. (eds). Mos maiorum: untersuchungen zu den formen der identitätsstiftung und stabilisierung in der r¶mischen republik. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2000. p. 25-98.

BRENNAN, T.C. Sulla's Career in the Nineties: Some Reconsiderations. Chiron. v. 22, 1992, p. 102-158.

______. Powers and Process under the Republican ‘Constitution'. in: FLOWER, H. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. p. 31-65.

BROUGHTON, T.R.S. The Magistrates of the Roman Republic. New York: Scholars Press, 1952.

BRUNT, A. Italian Manpower 225 BC-AD 14. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

______. The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

BURCKHARDT, L.A. Politische Strategien der Optimaten in der späten r¶mischen Republik. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1988.

BURTON, P. The Revolt of Lepidus (cos. 78 B.C.) Revisted. Historia. v. 63, 2014, p. 404-421.

CAMPBELL, V. The Tombs of Pompeii: Organization, Space and Society. New York-London: Routledge, 2015.

CANFORA, L. Proscrizioni e dissesto sociale nella repubblica Romana. Klio. v. 62, 1980, p. 425-437.

COARELLI, F. Il Foro romano II. Periodo repubblicano e augusteo. Roma: Quasar, 1985.

CRAWFORD, M.H. Roman Statutes. London: Institute of Classical Studies, 1996.

CUNY, B. Le monstre politique et la destruction de l'identité romaine dans les discours de Cicéron. in: SIMON, M. Identités Romaines: conscience de soi et représentations de l'autre dans la Rome Antique. Paris: Rue d'Ulm, 2011. p. 73-100.

DART, C.J. Deceit and the struggle for Roman franchise in Italy. in: TURNER, A., et al. Public and Private Lies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. p. 91-105.

______. The Social War, 91 to 88 BCE. A History of the Italian Insurgency against the Roman Republic. Farnham: Routledge, 2014.

DE VIVO, A. Costruire la memoria. Ricerche sugli storici latini. Napoli: Studi Latini, 1998.

DOWLING, M.B. The Clemency of Sulla. Historia. v. 49, 2000, p. 303-340.

DUPLÁ, A. Ciudadanía romana, nacionalidad e historiografía tardorrepublicana: Roma e Italia. in: SIMÓN, F.M. et al. Repúblicas y ciudadanos: modelos de participación cívica en el mundo antiguo. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona, 2006, p. 207-220.

______. Interpretaciones de la crisis tardorrepublicana: del conflicto social a la articulación del consenso. Studia historica. v. 25, 2007, p. 185-201.

______. La constitución romana como mecanismo de inclusión y exclusión. SHHA. v. 26, 2008, p. 21-38.

______. Consules Populares. in : BECK, H., et al. Consuls and Res Publica: Holding High Office in Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. p. 279-298.

ECKERT, A. Trauma as a Social Experiencie -- Remembering Sulla's Atrocities. in: ECKERT, A. Workshop: Re-Anchoring after the Crisis. Não publicado, 2015.

______. Lucius Cornelius Sulla in der Antiken Erinnerung. Jener M¶rder, der sich felix nannte. Berlin: Millenium-Studien, 2016.

ECKSTEIN, A. Senate and General: Individual Decision Making and Foreign Relations 264-194 B.C. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

EDER, W. Republican and Sinners: the Decline of the Roman Republic and the End of a Provisional Arrangement. in: WALLACE, R.W.; HARRIS, E.M. Transitions to Empire. Essays in Graeco-Roman History, in honor of E. Badian. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996. p. 439-461.

EVANS, R.J. The consulares and the praetorii in the Roman Senate at the Beginning of Sulla's Dictatorship. Athenaeum. v. 61, 1983, p. 521-528.

FAVELO, D.V. The Lucani between Greece and Rome: a Literary Analysis of their History to the End of the Social War. California: California University Press, 2010.

FLAIG, E. Ritualisierte Politik: Zeichen, Gesten und Herrschaft im alten Rom. G¶ttinen: Vandenhoek and Ruprecht, 2003.

FLOWER, H. Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

______. Roman Republics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.

GABBA, E. Republican Rome, the Army and the Allies. Berkeley-Los Angeles: Blackwell, 1976.

GALLINI, C. Protesta e integrazione nella Roma antica. Bari: Laterza, 1970.

GLINISTER, F. Reconsidering religious Romanization. in: SCHULTZ, E.; HARVEY, P.B. Religion in Republican Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. p. 10-33.

GOTTER, U. Cultural Differences and Cross-Cultural Contact: Greek and Roman Concepts of Power. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. v. 104, 2008, p. 179-230.

GRUEN, E. The Last Generation of the Roman Republic. California: University of California Press, 1974.

HANTOS, T. Res Publica Constituta: die Verfassung des Dictators Sulla. Stuttgart: Hermes Einzelschriften, 1988.

HARRIS, W.V. Roman Power: A Thousand Years of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

HATSCHER, C.R. Charisma und Res Publica. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2000.

HAYNE, L. M. Lepidus (cos. 78): a Re-appraisal. Historia. v. 21, 1972, p. 661-668.

HILL, H. Sulla's New Senators in 81 B.C. CQ. v. 26, 1932, p. 170-177.

HINARD, F. Sylla. Paris: Fayard, 1985.

HÖLKESKAMP, K-J. Lucius Cornelius Sulla -- Revolutionär und restaurativer Reformer. in: HÖLKESKAMP, K-J.; HÖLKESKAMP, E-S. Von Romulus zu Augustus 2. München: Beck, 1976. p. 199-218.

______. Senatus Populusque Romanus: Die politische Kultur der Republik: Dimensionen und Deutungen. Wiesbaden: Verlag, 2004.

______. Reconstructing the Roman Republic: an Ancient Political Culture and Modern Research. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.

HOPKINS, K. Death and Renewal: sociological studies in Roman History 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

______. Demolished Houses, Monumentality, and Memory in Roman Culture. CA. v. 29, 2010, p. 117-180.

HUMM, M. Il regimen morum dei censori e la identità dei cittadini. in: CORBINO, A. et al. Homo, caput, persona. La costruzione giuridica dell'identità nell'esperienza romana. Pavia: Pavia University Press, 2010. p. 283-314.

HURLET, F. La Dictature de Sylla: monarchie ou magistrature républicaine? Essai d'histoire constitutionelle. Bruxelles: Institut bege de Rome, 1993.

JEHNE, M. Jovialität und Freiheit: Zur Institutionalität der Beziehungen zwischen Oberund Unterschichten in der r¶mischen Republik. in: LINKE, B.; STEMMLER, M. Mos maiorum: Untersuchungen zu den Formen der Identitätsstiftung und Stabilisierung in der r¶mischen Republik. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2000. p. 207-235.

______. Statutes on Public Powers and Their Relationship to Mos. in: FERRARY, J-L. Leges Publicae: La legge nell'esperienza giuridica romana. Pavia: Pavia University Press, 2012. p. 405-428.

KATZ, B.R. The first fruits of Sulla's March. AC. v. 44, 1975, p. 100-125.

KEAVENEY, A. Sulla: the Last Republican. London: Routledge, 1982.

______. Who where the Sullani? Klio. v. 66, 1984, p. 114-150.

KELLY, G.P. A History of Exile in the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

KUNKEL, W. Magistratische Gewalt und Senatscherrschaft. ANRW. v. 1.2, 1972, p. 3-22.

______. Marcus Terentius Varro Saturae Menippeae. Ann Arbor: Scripta Mercaturae, 2002.

KUNKEL, W.-WITTMAN, R. Staatsordnung und Staatspraxis der r¶mischen Republik. Zweiter Abschnitt. Die Magistratur. München: Beck, 1995.

LA PENNA, A. Mobilita dei modelli etici e relativismo dei valori: da Cornelio Nepote a Valerio Massimo e alla Laus Pisonis. in: GIARDINA, A.; SCHIAVONE, A. Modelli etici, diritto e trasformazioni sociali. Roma: Laterza, 1981. p. 83-206.

LACAPRA, D. Trauma, abscence, loss. Critical Inquiry. v. 25, n. 4, 1999, p. 696-727.

LAFFI, U. Il mito di Silla. Athenaeum. v. 45, 1967, p. 117-213, 255-277.

LEE STECUM, P. Roman Elite Ethnicity. in: MCINERNEY, J. Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. p. 455-469.

LEPORE, E. La crisi della nobilitas, fra reazione e reforma. in: MOMIGLIANO, A.; SCHIAVONE, A. Storia di Roma 2.1. Turino: Einaudi, 1990. p. 737-758.

LEVY, C. Cicero Academicus, Recherches sur les Académiques et sur la philosophie cicéronienne. Roma: École français de Roma, 1992.

LEWIS, R.G. Sulla and Smyrna. CQ. v. 41, 1991, p. 126-129.

LINDERSKI, J. The Pontiff and the Tribune: The Death of Tiberius Gracchus. Athenaeum. v. 90, 2002, p. 339-366.

LINTOTT, A.W. Political History, 146-95 B.C. in: CROOK, J.A.; LINTOTT, A.; RAWSON, E. Cambridge Ancient History Volume IX. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

______. The Constitution of the Roman Republic. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.

LOVANO, M. The Age of Cinna. Sttutgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2002.

LOWRIE, M. Sovereignty before the law: Agamben and the Roman Republic. Law and humanities. v. 1, 2007, p. 31-55.

______. Spurius Maelius: Dictatorship and the Homo Sacer. in: BREED, B.; DAMON, C.; ROSSI, A. Citizens of Discord: Rome and its Civil Wars. Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. p. 171-186.

LUNDGREEN, C. Norme, loi, règle, coutume, tradition: terminologie antique et perspectives modernes. in: ITGENSHORST, T.; LE DOZE, P. Les normes sous la République et le Haut-Empire romains. Élaboration, diffusion et contournements, Bordeaux: Scripa Antiqua, 2017. p. 17-33.

MAGDELAIN, A. Recherches sur l'imperium: la loi curiate et auspices d'investiture. Paris: Presses Universitaries de France, 1968.

MAHE, M. Les Samnites existent-ils encore à l'époque d'Auguste? in: URSO, G. Patria Diversis Gentibus Una? Unità politica e identità etniche nell'Italia antica. Milano: Ets, 2007. p. 73-88.

MARSHALL, B.A. The Career Pattern of Marcus Livius Drusus. Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica. v. 115, 1987, p. 317-324.

MEIER, C. Res publica amissa. Wiesbaden: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1980.

MOATTI, C. De l'exception à la norme. Quelques réflexions sur la defense de la res publica aux II et I siècles a.C. in: ITGENSHORST, T.; LE DOZE, P. Les normes sous la République et le Haut-Empire romains. Élaboration, diffusion et contournements, Bordeaux: Scripa Antiqua, 2017. p. 355-372.

MOMMSEN, T. R¶misches Staatsrecht, Leipzig: 1887.

MORGAN, L. Levi quidem de re…: Julius Caesar as Tyrant and Pedant. JRS. v. 87, 1997, p. 23-40.

MORSTEIN, R. Mass Oratory and Political Power in the Late Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

MOURITSEN, H. Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

______. The Incongruence of Power: The Roman Constitution in Theory and Practice. in: HAMMER, D. A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. p. 146-164.

MURA SOMMELLA, A. La grande Roma dei Tarquini: Alterne vicende di una felice intuizione. Bullcom. v. 101, 2000, p. 7-26.

NIPPEL, W. Aufruhr und ‘Polizei' in der r¶mischen Republik, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1988.

NOY, D. Foreigners at Rome. Citizens and Strangers, London: Duckworth, 2000.

PASCUCCI, G. I Commentarii di Silla. in: BOLDRINI, S., et al. Atti del Convegno Gli Storiografi Latini Tramandati in Frammenti. Urbino: Università di Urbino, 1975. p. 283-296.

PATTERSON, J.R. Local Elites. in: COOLEY, A.E. A Companion to Roman Italy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. p. 483-497.

PERRY, E. Art, Architecture, and Space in the Roman Participatory Context. in: HAMMER, D. A Companion to Greek Democracy and the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. p. 482-500.

PINA POLO, F. Contra arma verbis: Der Redner vor dem Volk in der späten r¶mischen Republik. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1996.

______. The Consul at Rome: the civil functions of the consuls in Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011a.

______. Mos maiorum como instrumento de control social de la nobilitas romana. Páginas. v. 4, 2011b, p. 54-77.

POWELL, J.G.F. The Tribune Sulpicius. Historia. v. 39, 1990, p. 446-460.

RAMAGE, E. Sulla's Propaganda. Klio. v. 73, n. 1, p. 93-121.

ROBB, M.A. Beyond Populares and Optimates: Political Language in the Late Republic. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2010.

ROCHEL, L. Roma et Italia: From the Gracchi to Cicero, 133-64 B.C. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

SALMON, E.T. The making of Roman Italy. New York: Cornell University Press, 1982.

SANTANGELO, F. The Impact of Sulla on Italy and the Mediterranean World. London: UCL, 2006.

______. The Triumph of Caesarism. An unfinished Book by Ronald Syme. Quaderni di storia. v. 79, 2014, p. 5-32.

SCHMITT, C. Political theology: Four chapters on the concept of sovereignty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

SIMÓN, F.M. The Feriae Latinae as Religious Legitimation of the Consuls' imperium. in : BECK, H., et al. Consuls and Res Publica: Holding High Office in Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. p. 116-132.

SPAETH, B. The Goddess Ceres and the Death of Tiberius Gracchus. Historia. v. 39, 1990, p. 182-195.

STEEL, C. The Roman senate and the post-Sullan res publica. Historia. v. 63, n. 3, 2014, p. 323-339.

STOCKTON, D. The Gracchi. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

STONE, A.M. Optimates: an Archaeology. in: WELCH, K.; HILLARD, T.W. Roman Crossings. Theory and Practice in the Roman Republic. Swansea: Classical Press of Wales, 2005. p. 54-94.

TAN, J. Power and Public Finance at Rome, 264-49 BCE. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

THOMMEN, L. Das Volkstribunat der späten r¶mischen Republik. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1989.

______. Populus, Plebs und Populares in der r¶mischen Republik. in: FABER, R.; UNGER, F. Populismus in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Würzburg: K¶nigshausen, 2008. p. 31-41.

TUORI, K. The Emperor of Law: the Emergence of Roman Imperial Adjudication. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

VALGIGLIO, E. L'autobiografia di Sulla nelle biografie di Plutarco. Studi Urbinati. v. 49, n. 1, 1975, p. 245-281.

VAN DEMAN, E.B. The Sullan Forum. JRS. v. 12, 1922, p. 1-31.

VAN DER BLOM, H. Cicero's role models. The Political Strategy of a Newcomer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

VAN GALEN, C. Women and Citizenship in the Late Roman Republic and the Early Empire. Nijmegen: RU, 2016.

VERVAET, F.J. The Lex Valeria and Sulla's empowerment as dictator (82-79 BCE). Cahiers Glotz. v. 15, 2004, p. 37-84.

VISHNIA, R.F. Roman Elections in the Age of Cicero. London: Routledge, 2012.

WALLACE, A. Mutatio morum: the idea of a cultural revolution. in: HABINEK, T.; SCHIESARO, A. The Roman Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. p. 3-22.

______. Rome's Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

WIEACKER, F. R¶mische Rechtsgeschichte. München: Beck, 1988.

WISEMAN, T.P. New Men in the Roman Senate, 139 B.C.-A.D. 14. Oxford: Oxford Classical and Philological Monographs, 1971.

______. Remembering the Roman People. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

WULFF, F. Roma e Italia de la Guerra Social a la retirada de Sila (90-79 a.C.). Bruxelles: Latomus, 2002.

YAKOBSON, A. Popular power in the Roman Republic. in: ROSENSTEIN, N.; MORSTEIN, R. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006: 383-400.

______. Marius Speaks to the People: “New Man”, Roman Nobility and Roman Political Culture. Scripta Classica Israelica. v. 33, 2014, p. 283-300.

______. Cicero, the Constitution and the Roman People. AHB. v. 29, 2015, p. 157-177.

ZECCHINI, G. Cesare e il mos maiorum. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2001.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17074/cpc.v1i37.17980

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.