Evaluación de las democracias contemporáneas bajo los efectos de la crisis económica

Carlos Garcia-Rivero, Hennie Kotzè

Resumo


RESUMEN:

Históricamente ha habido un debate sobre el resultado del proceso democrático que se centra en si el producto de las democracias deben ser derechos políticos y libertades civiles o por el contrario deben ser bienes y servicios básicos a los ciudadanos. La crisis económica global que comenzó en 2007 ha tenido un impacto en las políticas económicas de los gobiernos que han tenido que aplicar medidas de ajuste, a veces impuestas por organismos internacionales no sujetos a control ciudadanos de los países donde se aplicaban dichas medidas, generando protestas y revueltas y la aparición de nuevos partidos políticos. En este escenario la crisis económica proporciona una oportunidad única para evaluar las expectativas de la democracia tanto de la ciudadanía como de las elites que las representan. Este artículo realiza un análisis sobre cinco democracias contemporáneas (Polonia, Chile, Suecia, Turquía y Sudáfrica) sobre las expectativas de la ciudadanía y las elites en 2006, al comienzo de la crisis y en 2013, cuando lo peor de la misma parecía haber pasado. Los resultados indican que existe una demanda tanto de la ciudadanía como de las elites de todos los países, principalmente de factores políticos (derechos políticos) quedando los aspectos económicos relegados a un segundo plano.

ABSTRACT:

Historically the debate about the results of the democratic process has focused on whether its results should grant  political rights and civil liberties or goods and basic services  to citizens. The 2007 global economic crisis affected the economic policies of governments around the world. Many of the adopted policies consisted in adjustment programmes imposed by international organisms, not subject to citizen control, which led to protests, riots and the rise of new political parties. In this scenario the economical crisis provides an unique opportunity to assess citizens and elite expectations of democracy and what it represents. This article provides an analysis of the citizens and elites expectations of democracy in five contemporary democracies (Poland, Chile, Sweden, Turkey and South Africa) in 2006 and 2013. The results showed that both citizens and elites, in all countries examined, claim for more political rights, relegating the economical aspect to a secondary place.

RESUMO:

Historicamente, houve um debate sobre o resultado do processo democrático que se concentra no fato de o produto das democracias serem direitos políticos e liberdades civis ou devem ser bens e serviços básicos para os cidadãos. A crise econômica global que começou em 2007 teve impacto nas políticas econômicas dos governos que tiveram que implementar medidas de ajuste, às vezes impostas por agências internacionais não sujeitas ao controle do cidadão nos países onde as medidas foram aplicadas, gerando protestos e revoltas e o surgimento de novos partidos políticos. Nesse cenário, a crise econômica oferece uma oportunidade única para avaliar as expectativas de democracia tanto dos cidadãos como das elites que os representam. Este artigo examina cinco democracias contemporâneas (Polônia, Chile, Suécia, Turquia e África do Sul) sobre as expectativas de cidadania e elites em 2006, no início da crise e em 2013, quando o pior parecia ter passado. Os resultados indicam que existe uma demanda tanto dos cidadãos como das elites de todos os países, principalmente de fatores políticos (direitos políticos), deixando os aspectos econômicos relegados a um segundo plano.



Palavras-chave


Crisis económica global; Democracias contemporáneas; Derechos políticos; Global Economic Crisis; Contemporary Democracies; Political Rights; Crise econômica global; Democracias contemporâneas; Direitos políticos

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21875/tjc.v2i1.10335

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Direitos autorais 2017 Carlos Garcia-Rivero, Hennie Kotzè