• Carlos Piñeyro Nelson The New School for Social Research/Universidad Iberoamericana, Puebla



trabajadoras del hogar, leyes, movimiento, centro de trabajadoras.


RESUMEN: Es artículo discutirá como en los Estados Unidos las trabajadoras del hogar llevan años movilizándose por tener derechos laborales, y cambiar la noción de que el trabajo del hogar no es un “trabajo verdadero”. Se expondrá y discutirá cómo la creación de leyes para las trabajadoras del hogar en EEUU ayuda a que éstas generen una identidad colectiva que propicia una mayor participación política. Dicha acción ha sido encaminada por la National Domestic Workers Alliance. También se discutirá el modelo del centro de trabajadores (worker centers) seguido ampliamente por este sector laboral. Con ello se analizarán las capacidades disruptivas (FOX-PIVEN and CLOWARD, 1977) el poder simbólico (CHUN, 2009),  ideológico (LUI, 2015) y estructural (SILVER, 2003) que las trabajadoras del hogar tienen en EEUU, así como una revisión crítica a los centros de trabajadores, la forma en que toman decisiones y el financiamiento obtenido (FRANZ and FERNANDES, 2018; MCCARTHY and ZALD, 1977).

RESUMO: Este artigo discutirá como as trabalhadoras domésticas nos Estados Unidos vêm se mobilizando há anos para ter direitos trabalhistas e para mudar a noção de que o trabalho doméstico não é um "trabalho de verdade". Será apresentado e discutido como a criação de leis para trabalhadoras domésticas nos Estados Unidos as ajuda a gerar uma identidade coletiva que incentiva uma maior participação política. Esta ação foi liderada pela National Domestic Workers Alliance. O modelo dos centros de trabalho, amplamente seguido por este setor de trabalho, também será discutido. Serão analisadas as capacidades disruptivas (FOX-PIVEN e CLOWARD, 1977), simbólicas (CHUN, 2009), ideológicas (LUI, 2015) e estruturais (SILVER, 2003) de poder que as trabalhadoras domésticas têm nos EUA, bem como um poder crítico revisão dos centros de trabalhadores, da forma como tomam decisões e dos financiamentos obtidos (FRANZ e FERNANDES, 2018; MCCARTHY e ZALD, 1977).


BORIS, E. and KLEIN, J. Caring for America. Home Health Workers in the Shadow of the Welfare State. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2012.

BORIS, E.and NADASEN, P. Introduction: Historicizing Domestic Workers’ Resistance and Organizing.” International Labor and Working-Class History. No. 88, Fall, pp. 4–10. 2015.

-- Domestic Workers Organize! Working USA: The Journal of Labor and Society. Vol. 11, Issue 4, (December.) pp. 413–437. 2008

BRIGGS Jr., V. Immigration Policy and American Unionism: A Reality Check (No. 4). 2004.

BURNHAM, L and THEODORE, N. Home Economics. The Invisible and Unregulated World of Domestic Work. New York, National Domestic Workers Alliance, Center for Urban Economic Development, University of Illinois at Chicago, and DataCenter. 2012.

CHUN, J. Organizing at the Margins. The Symbolic Politics of Labor in South Korea and the United States. Ithaca, Cornell University Press. 2009.

CLAWSON, D. The Next Upsurge. Labor and the New Social Movements. Ithaca, Cornell University Press. 2003.

COHEN, L. Making a New Deal. Industrial Workers in Chigago, 1919-1939. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 2009.

DOMESTIC WORKERS UNITED AND DATA CENTER. Home is Where the Work is: Inside New York’s Domestic Work Industry, New York. Retrieved January 27 2017. .2006.

FEDERICI, S. Revolution Point Zero. Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle. Oakland, CA: PM Press. 2012.

FINE, J. Worker Centers. Organizing Communities at the Edge of the Dream. Ithaca, Cornell University Press. 2006.

FRANTZ, C. and FERNANDES, S. Whose Movement Is It? Strategic Philanthropy and Worker Centers. Critical Sociology, 44(4–5), 645– 660. 2018.

GLENN, E.N. From Servitude to Service Work: Historical Continuities in the Racial Division of Paid Reproductive Labor. Signs, 18(1), 1–43. 1992.

GOLDBERG, H. Domestic Worker Organizing in the United States: Reports from the Field.” International Labor and Working-Class History. Vol. 88, pp150-155. 2015.

-- “Prepare to Win”: Domestic Workers United’s Strategic Transition Following Passage of the New York Domestic Workers’ Bill of Rights”, in Milkman, Ruth and Ed Ott (Eds.), New Labor in New York. Precarious Workers and the Future of the Labor Movement. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, pp- 266-288. 2014.

GORDON, J. Suburban Sweatshops. The Fight for Immigrant Rights. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. 2005.

GOTTFRIED, H. and CHUN, J. J. Care Work in Transition: Transnational Circuits of Gender, Migration, and Care. Critical Sociology, 44(7–8), 997– 1012. 2018.

HONDAGNEU-SOTELO, P. Domestica. Immigrant Workers Cleaning & Caring in the Shadows of Affluence. Berkeley, California University Press. 2007.

HOOKS, B. Ain’t I a woman : Black women and feminism (1981st ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. 2015

ILO, INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION. ILO global estimates on migrant workers. Results and methodology. Special focus on migrant domestic workers. Recuperado el 27 de abril de 2017.

--1. Who are Domestic Workers?. Recuperado el 26 de noviembre de 2017

--2. C189 -Domestic Workers Convention, (No. 189). Recuperado el 10 de marzo de 2017.

--3. Ratifications of C189 - Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189). Recuperado el 10 de marzo de 2017.


--4. Ratifications of C189 and law & policy across the world. Recuperado el 10 de marzo de 2017.

--5. New York City Domestic Workers Cooperatives. Sustainable. Empowerment. Community Building. Recuperado el 10 de marzo de 2017.

INCITE! The Revolution Will Not Be Funded: Beyond the Non-Profit Industrial Complex. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. 2017.

LITTLE, D. Building a Movement of Caring Selves Organizing Direct Care Workers, in MIGNON D, ARMENIA A. , and. STACEY, C. (eds.), Caring on the Clock: The Complexities and Contradictions of Paid Care Work. New Jersey, Rutgers University Press. Kindle Edition, pp.251-262. 2015.

LIU, H. Leverage of the Weak. Labor and Environmental Movements in Taiwan and South Korea. Minneapolis, The University of Minnesota Press. 2015.

MAY, V. H. Unprotectd Labor: Household Workers, Politics, and Middle-Class Reform in New York, 1870-1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 2011.

MCCARTHY, J. and ZALD. M. Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory. The American Journal of Sociology, 82(6), 1212–1241. 1977.

MIES, M. Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale. Women in the International Division of Labor. London: Zed Books. 2014.

MILKMAN, R., BLOOM, J., and NAVARRO, V. (Ed.). Working for Justice. The L.A. Model of Organizing and Advocacy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2010.

MILKMAN, R. AND OTT, E. (Ed.). New Labor in New York. Precarious Workers and the Future of the Labor Movement. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2014.

MILKMAN, R. Introduction: Toward a New Labor Movement? Organizing New York’s Precariat. In MILKMAN, RUTH, AND OTT E. (Ed.), New Labor in New York. Precarious Workers and the Future of the Labor Movement, 1–24. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2014.

NADASEN, P. Household Workers Unite. The Untold Story of African American Women Who Built a Movement. Boston, Beacon Press Books. 2015.

--. Citizenship Rights, Domestic Work, and the Fair Labor Standards Act. The Journal of Policy History, Vol. 24, No. 155. 2012.

NLRA, “Definitions, Sec. 2. [§152.] When used in this Act [subchapter]”, Recuperado el 27 de marzo de 2018

PIVEN, F- AND CLOWARD, R. Poor People’s Movements. Why They Succeed, How They Fail. New York, Vintage Books. 1977.

POO, A. Black Domestic Workers Are Fearing For Their Lives. Organizing Has Changed Mine. Recuperado el 15 agosto de 2020,

--. A Twenty-First Century Organizing Model: Lessons from the New York Domestic Workers Bill of Rights Campaign.” New Labor Forum, 20.1, 51- 55. 2011.

QAYUM, S. AND RAY, R. Traveling Cultures of Servitude: Loyalty and Betrayal in New York and Kolkata. In. BORIS, E. AND PARREÑAS

SALAZAR, E. (Ed.), Intimate Labors. Cultures, Technologies, and the Politics of Care.101–116. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 2010.

ROGERS, D. Coming to America. A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life. New York, Visual Education Corporation. 1990.

ROMERO, M. Maid in the U.S.A (10th Anniv). New York, NY: Routledge. 2002.

SABATINO, C. AND NEWMAN C. The New Status of Home Care Workers Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Bifocal, Vol. 36, Issue 6. Disponible en Revisado el 28 de 2020. 2015.

SHERMAN, R. Caring or Catering? Emotions, Autonomy, and Subordination in Lifestyle Work. in MIGNON D., ARMENIA, A. AND STACEYM C. (eds.) Caring on the Clock: The Complexities and Contradictions of Paid Care Work. New Jersey, Rutgers University Press. Kindle Edition, pp.165-176. 2015.

--. Class Acts. Service and Inequality in Luxury Hotels. Berkeley, University of California Press. 2007.

SILVER, B. Forces of Labor. Workers’ Movements and Globalization since 1870. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 2003.

STRAUSS, E. The Invisible Workers. The American Prospect, Washington, DC, June 10. 2009.

THEODORE, N., GUTELIUS, B., AND BURNHAM, L. Workplace Health and Safety Hazards Faced by Informally Employed Domestic Workers in the United States. Workpalce Health and Safety, 67(1), 9–17. 2019.

UNITED WORKERS CONGRESS, Domestic Workers. Recuperado el 3 de dicimebre de 2016.

WALDINGER, R., ERICKSON, C., MILKMAN, R., MITCHELL, D., VALENZUELA, A., WONG, K., AND ZEITLIN, M. Helots No More: A Case Study of the Justice for Janitors Campaign in Los Angeles. In and BROFENBRENNER, R., FRIEDMAN, FÇK., SHELDON, H., RICHARD W., OSWALD, R. A. (Ed.), Organizing to Win: New Research on Union Strategies.105–119. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1998.





Seção Especial: Dossiê "Um novo Direito do Trabalho para o mundo de hoje: ampliar a base e expandir a imaginação"