Preservação Excepcional de Biomateriais Não Mineralizados em Fósseis do Clado Avialae

Everton Fernando Alves, Marcio Fraiberg Machado

Abstract


Milhares de fósseis de aves primitivas e diversificadasda Era Mesozoica e Cenozoica têm sido descobertos ao redor do mundo. Destes, centenas de estudos encontraram preservação excepcional de biomateriais mineralizados, permitindo ampliar o conhecimento acerca da sua ecologia e evolução. Porém, o clado Avialae apresenta dados escassos a respeito de achados de biomateriais não mineralizados e os que já foram identificados estão dispersos na literatura, associando a ideia das descobertas a fenômenos isolados. Este trabalho apresenta uma revisão da literatura publicada nas últimas duas décadas, com o fim de compreender melhor a frequência dos achados de biomateriais não mineralizados em fósseis do clado Avialae. Os resultados identificaram 12 artigos descrevendo biocomponentes originais para representantes de Anchiornithinae, Confuciusornithidae, Enantiornithes e Euornithes. Destes, as moléculas de proteínas (50%) e melaninas (41,7%) apresentaram maior frequência de achados. Em geral, embora os dados para os grupos não se mostrem taxonomicamente abrangentes, houve ampla distribuição geográfica no globo relativa a bioquímicos originais nas rochas mesozoicas e cenozoicas. No entanto, acredita-se que a frequência é subnotificada e, a partirdo surgimento de novas tecnologias, a previsão é de que maior quantidade de biomateriais orgânicos seja identificada nos fósseis.


Keywords


Aves fósseis; Paleontologia Molecular; Moléculas orgânicas

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.11137/1982-3908_2021_44_37908

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