QUEM TEM MEDO DO POVO? O DEBATE ENTRE ÁGORAFOBIA POLÍTICA E ÁGORAFILIA POLÍTICA

Francis Dupuis-Déri

Resumo


As pessoas têm a capacidade política de se autogovernarem, ou elas precisam ser governadas pela elite para "o bem comum"? Para o esclarecimento dessa questão, apresento dois conceitos: ágorafobia política e ágorafilia política. Começo, brevemente, explicando a tensão entre duas atitudes para as pessoas: o amor e o medo. Então, defini sistematicamente os argumentos e os contra-argumentos dos dois lados da controvérsia. O debate parece acabar em um impasse retórico, dado que tanto o povo quanto a elite podem ser vistos como irracionais, vulneráveis à demagogia e aos facciosos. Deixo claro, portanto, que a principal intenção não é demonstrar se as pessoas são confiáveis ou não no que diz respeito às suas capacidades políticas. Ao contrário, busco o reconhecimento de que esse debate contém uma luta política fundamental entre o desejo de dominação e o desejo de liberdade igualitária, assim como a disposição de distinguir o significado filosófico das experiências políticas democráticas e populares.

Palavras-chave


Ágorafobia; Ágorafilia; Democracia; Anarquismo

Texto completo:

PDF DOCX

Referências


Abensour, M. (2011). Democracy against the State. London: Polity Press.

Abensour, M. (2009). “‘Démocratie Insurgeante’ Et Institution.” In La Démocratie Au-Delà Du

Libéralisme: Perspectives Critiques, edited by M. Breaugh and F. Dupuis-Déri. Outremont: Athéna/Chaire Mondialisation-citoyenneté-démocratie.

Aeschimann, E. (2016). “Nuit Debout Et Le ‘Refus Du Leader,’ ‘Occuper Une Place Ne Suffit Pas,’ Interview De Chantal Mouffe” Nouvel Obs, April 22. http://bibliobs.nouvelobs.com/idees/20160422.OBS9048/nuit-debout-et-le-refus-du-leader-occuper-une-place-ne-suffit-pas.html

Bakunin, M. (2001). Théorie Générale De La Révolution. Paris: Nuits Rouges.

Balibar, É. (2010). La Proposition De L’égaliberté. Paris: Presses universitaires de France (PUF).

Balibar, É. (1997). “Spinoza, l’anti-Orwell: La Crainte Des Masses.” In La Crainte Des Masses: Politique Et Philosophie Avant Et Après Marx, edited by E. Balibar. Paris: Galilée.

Benhabib, S. (1996). The Reluctant Modernism of Hannah Arendt. London: SAGE Publications.

Bodin, J. (1986). Les Six Livres De La République. Paris: Fayard.

Bove, L. (2002). “De L’étude De L’état Hébreu À La Démocratie: La Stratégie Politique Du Conatus Spinoziste.” Philosophiques 29: 1. doi:10.7202/009567ar.

Bras, G. (2008). Les Ambiguïtés Du Peuple. Nantes: Pleins Feux.

Breaugh, M. (2016). The Plebeian Experience: A Discontinuous History of Political Freedom. New York: Columbia University Press. (trans. by Lazer Lederhendler).

Butler, J. (2015). Notes toward a Performative Theory of Assembly. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Chambry, P. (1954). “Notice.” In L’Anabase, edited by Xénophon. Paris: Garnier Frères.

Christiano, T. (1996) The Rule of the Many: Fundamental Issues in Democratic Theory. Boulder: Westview.

Clark, J. (2004) “The Microecology of Community.” Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 15: 4. doi:10.1080/1045575042000287334.

Clark, J. P. (1978) “What is Anarchism?” Nomos 19: 3–28.

Constant, B. (1988) [1819]. “The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns.” In Political Writings, edited by B. Constant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

d’Héricourt, J. P. (1860). La Femme Affranchie: Réponse À MM. Michelet, Proudhon, É De Girardin, A. Comte Et Aux Autres Novateurs Modernes. Vol. 1. Bruxelles: A. Lacroix, Van Meenen.

Dahl, R. A. (1989). Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.

de Romilly, J. (1975). Problèmes De La Démocratie Grecque. Paris: Hermann.

Delphy, C. (2001). “Préface: Critique De La Raison Naturelle.” In L’Ennemi Principal — 2 “Penser Le Genre”, edited by C. Delphy. Paris: Syllepse.

Detienne, M. (2003). “Pratiques D’assemblées Aux Formes Du Politique: Pour Un Comparatisme Expérimental Et Constructif Entre Historiens Et Anthropologues.” In Qui Veut Prendre La Parole?edited by M. Detienne. Paris: Seuil.

Dorlin, E. (2001). L’Evidence De l’Egalité Des Sexes: Une Philosophie Oubliée Du XVIIe Siècle. Paris: L’Harmattan.

Dupuis-Déri, F. (1999). “L’esprit Anti-Démocratique Des Fondateurs De La ‘Démocratie’ Moderne.” Agone 22: 95–113.

Dupuis-Déri, F. (2004). “The Political Power of Words: The Birth of Prodemocratic Discourse in the 19th Century in the United States and France.” Political Studies 52 (3): 118–134. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9248.2004.00467.x.

Dupuis-Déri, F. (2005). “Anarchy in Political Philosophy.” Anarchist Studies 13 (1): 8–22.

Fraser, N. (2013). “Against Anarchism” Public Seminar, October 9. http://www.publicseminar.org/2013/10/against-anarchism/#.WKyVjrF7TBI

Greenfeld, L. (1992). Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Hardt, M., and A. Negri. 2004. Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. New York: Penguin Press.

Hartley, D. (1995). “Communitarian Anarchism and Human Nature.” Anarchist Studies 3 (2): 145–164. 254 F. DUPUIS-DÉRI

Hirschman, A. O. (1991). The Rhetoric of Reaction: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy. Cambridge: Belknap Press.

Hyneman, C. S., and D. S. Lutz, eds. (1983). American Political Writing during the Founding Era 1760-1805, I. Indianapolis: Liberty Press.

Kateb, G. (1981). “The Moral Distinctiveness of Representative Democracy.” Ethics 91: 3. doi:10.1086/292248.

Kohn, M. (2000). “Language, Power, and Persuasion: Toward a Critique of Deliberative Democracy.” Constellations 7: 3. doi:10.1111/1467-8675.00197.

Kropotkine, P. (2006) [1896]. L’Anarchie. Paris: De Sandre.

Kropotkine, P. (2009). L’état — Son Rôle Historique. Marseille: Le Flibustier.

Kruzynski, A. (2004). “De l’Opération SalAMI À Némésis: Le Cheminement D’un Groupe De Femmes Du Movement Altermondialiste Québécois.” Recherches Féministes 17: 2. doi:10.7202/012405ar.

Laclau, E. (2004). On Populist Reason. London: Verso.

Machiavelli, N. (1979). The Discourses, in the Portable Machiavelli. New York: Penguin Book.

Machiavelli, N. (1984). The Prince. New York: Bantam Classics.

Macpherson, C. B. (1962). The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Madison, J., A. Hamilton, and J. Jay. (1987). The Federalist Papers. New York: Penguin Books.

McCelland, J. S. (1989). The Crowd and the Mob: From Plato to Canetti. London: Unwin Hyman.

Mill, J. S. (1972). Utilitarism. London: Dent.

Mill, J. S. ed. (1977). “De Tocqueville on Democracy in America [II].” In Collected Works. Vol. 18. Toronto: Toronto University Press.

Monnet, C. (1998). “La Répartition Des Tâches Entre Les Hommes Et Les Femmes Dans Le Travail De La Conversation.” Nouvelles Questions Féministes 19: 9–34.

Montesquieu, J. (1989). The Spirit of the Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morgan, E. S. (1988). Inventing the People: The Rise of Popular Sovereignty in England and America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Mounier, E. (1966). Communisme, Anarchie Et Personnalisme. Paris: Seuil.

Negri, A. (1982). L’Anomalie Sauvage: Puissance Et Pouvoir Chez Spinoza. Paris: Presses universitaires de France (PUF).

Orwell, G. (1962). “Shooting an Elephant.” In Inside the Whales and Other Essays, edited by G. Orwell. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pateman, C. (1983). “Feminism and Democracy.” In Democratic Theory and Practice, edited by G. Duncan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pitkin, H. F. (1967). The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Plotke, D. (1997). “Representation Is Democracy.” Constellations 4: 1. doi:10.1111/1467-8675.00033.

Polletta, F. (2002). Freedom Is an Endless Meeting: Democracy in America in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Proudhon, P.-J. (1990). De La Justice Dans La Révolution Et Dans L’église. Vol. IV. Paris: Fayard.

Proudhon, P.-J. (2009). La Pornocratie. Paris: L’Herne.

Rancière, J. (1995). La Mésentente: Politique Et Philosophie. Paris: Galilée.

Rancière, J. (1998). Aux Bords Du Politique. Paris: La Fabrique.

Reclus, É. (2001) [1898]. Évolution, Révolution Et Idéal Anarchique. Paris: Phénix.

Rousseau, -J.-J. (1993). “The Social Contract.” In The Social Contract and Discourses, edited by J.-J.

Rousseau, London: Everyman. (trans. by GD.H. Cole).

Sanders, L. M. (1997). “Against Deliberation.” Political Theory 25: 3. doi:10.1177/0090591797025003002.

Sartori, G. (1987). The Theory of Democracy Revisited. Chatham: Chatham House Publishers.

Sieyès, E. J. (1989) [1789]. “Sur l’Organisation Du Pouvoir Législatif Et La Sanction Royale.” In Orateurs De La Révolution Française: Les Constituants, edited by F. Furet and R. Halévi. Paris: Gallimard.

Spinoza, B. (1958). The Political Works: The Tractatus Theologico-Politicus in Parts and the Tractatus Politicus in Full. Oxford: Clarendon Press. GLOBAL DISCOURSE 255

Spinoza, B. (2016). The Collected Works of Spinoza. Vol. I and II. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [one-volume digital edition].

Suissa, J. (2010). Anarchism and Education: A Philosophical Perspective. Oakland: PM Press.

Walzer, M. (1970). “A Day in the Life of A Socialist Citizen.” In Obligations: Essays on Desobedience,

War and Citizenship, edited by M. Walzer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Webster, N. (1991) [1794]. “The Revolution in France.” In Political Sermons of the American Founding Era 1730-1805, edited by E. Sandoz. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.

Wilson, C. (2005) [1886]. “Anarchism.” In Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, edited by R. Graham. Montréal: Black Rose Books.

Winter, P., and L. Wank (2014). “‘Democratise Democracy!’—Interview with Chantal Mouffe” Transformations, April 16, http://transformations-blog.com/we-propose-democracy-interviewwith- chantal-mouffe/

Wolff, J. (1996). An Introduction to Political Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Xenophon. (1942). The Constitution of the Athenians. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.

Young, I. M. (1996). “Communication and The Other: Beyond Deliberative Democracy.” In Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political, edited by S. Benhabib. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Direitos autorais 2019 Francis Dupuis-Déri