EPIPHYTE PLANTS USE BY BIRDS IN BRAZIL

César Cestari

Abstract


This study firstly reviewed the interspecific interaction records between birds and epiphyte plants in Brazil. Forty two documents, including articles, scientific notes, books, theses, and 35 personal and collaborators' records were found, totaling 112 species of birds that interacted with 97 species of epiphyte plants. Two articles treated the theme specifically and another 40 treated related subjects, such as: pollination of epiphytes, ecology and feeding behavior of birds. Studies were concentrated mainly in the Atlantic Forest, in Southeastern Brazilian. The epiphyte species most visited by birds was Aechmea nudicaulis (Bromeliaceae). The main visitor of epiphytes was Ramphodon naevius (Trochilidae). According to the number of authors' citations an index of generality in bird-epiphyte interactions was created. As a result, the index inferred that the ovenbird Cichlocolaptes leucophrus and the bromeliad Nidularium procerum are the less generalist and most specialist species in bird-epiphyte interactions. The total number of papers showed a considerable number of bird species that use epiphytes and their resources, including nectar, fruits, invertebrates, nest material, nesting site, water and bath. Considering the importance of epiphytes to supply a variety of resources for birds, these results highlight the necessity of additional and specific studies about the theme in various Brazilian regions and biomes.


Keywords


Atlantic Forest; avian community; bird-plant interaction; bromeliads; resources

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