Biodiesel Production Using Residual Vegetable Oil and Activated by Geopolymer Matrixes with Magnetic Particles
Keywords:Residual vegetable oil, Geopolymer, Magnetite, Biodiesel, Recycling, Cooking oil, Magnetic particles, Biofuel
The cooking oil, when reused in frying, undergoes a thermal degradation process that changes its physical and chemical characteristics. After repeated use of the oil, it becomes viscous and increasingly dark, it has high acidity and unpleasant odor, being inconvenient to use for new fried food because it gives unpleasant odor and taste to food and also harmful chemical characteristics to health. When these residues become unusable usually they are dumped into the sewage system and have a negative environmental impact, for example, in rainwater and sanitary sewage systems the oil mixes with the organic matter and obstructs grease boxes and pipes. Therefore, the recycling of residual vegetable oil is necessary and very useful, because it transforms the oil for other applications, for example, in this work the use of porous geopolymer with magnetic particles in the concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 3% were studied for act on the activation of the biodiesel reaction from the used cooking oil. The geopolymers with and without magnetic particles were studied using Fourrier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The density, the kinematic viscosity, and yield of the biodiesel formation reaction were investigated. The results, calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a 95% confidence limit, indicate that all the biodiesel samples analyzed are in accordance with the kinematic viscosity value established by the Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis (ANP) but only samples with 0% and 1% magnetic particles have density according to the stipulated parameters.
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We at this moment declare that the present paper is our original work and has not been previously considered, either in whole or in part, for publication elsewhere. Besides, we warrant the authors will not submit this paper for publication in any other journal. We also guarantee that this article is free of plagiarism and that any accusation of plagiarism will be the authors' sole responsibility. The undersigned transfer all copyrights to the present paper (including without limitation the right to publish the work in any and all forms) to BJEDIS, understanding that neglecting this agreement will submit the violator to undertake the legal actions provided in the Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights (No. 9610 of February 19, 1998). Also, we, the authors, declare no conflict of interest. Finally, all funders were cited in the acknowledgments section.