MESOZOOPLÂNCTON E MASSAS D´ÁGUA NA BAÍA DE GUANABARA: DEZ ANOS DE MONITORAMENTO

Jean Louis Valentin, Giovanna Venância Gouvêa, Cláudio Leandro Gomes

Abstract


O presente trabalho é fruto de pesquisas desenvolvidas no âmbito do Programa de Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração – PELD/ CNPq, sobre o mesozooplâncton da Baía de Guanabara. A Baía de Guanabara é um dos ecossistemas mais eutrofizados e poluídos do mundo. Sua estrutura hidrológica é peculiar devido à uma dupla estratificação da sua coluna d´água: térmica, decorrente da entrada da Água Central do Atlântico Sul no fundo, e halina, com baixa salinidade na superfície devido ao efluente continental. Apesar de uma grande disponibilidade em biomassa primária, observa-se uma degradação das comunidades mesozooplanctônicas nas áreas mais internas. Constitui o objetivo principal desse estudo, analisar a composição e abundância dos principais elementos de mesozooplâncton da baia ao longo de uma década. Nos formulamos a hipótese de um efeito das mudanças hidrológicas, reveladoras das condições climáticas globais, sobre as comunidades mesozooplanctônicas. As coletas foram efetuadas durante 10 anos, 2 a 3 vezes ao mês, com rede de 200 µm de abertura de malha em arrastos verticais numa estação fixa. O mesozooplâncton foi dominado pelos copepodos Acartia tonsa, Paracalanus spp, Temora turbinata, Oncea venusta e Oithona hebes, seguido de Appendicularia, Chaetognatha e Cladocera. As flutuações de densidade e de composição são essencialmente decorrentes da influência sazonal e da estratificação da coluna d´água causada por mudanças de massas d´água. A ausência de variação interanual da densidade do mesozooplâncton pode ser explicada pela insuficiência da série temporal e/ou pela eficiência, mesmo que parcial, do Programa de Despoluição da Baía de Guanabara do Governo do Estado de Rio de Janeiro. Prosseguir com o monitoramento de longo prazo é essencial para poder detectar eventual alteração na densidade e composição das comunidades mesozooplanctônicas da baía.


MESOZOOPLANKTON AND WATER MASSES IN THE GUANABARA BAY: TEN YEARS MONITORING. This work was made from the Long Term Ecological Research program -LTER /CNPq, on the mesozooplankton of the Guanabara Bay. Guanabara Bay is one of the most eutrophicated and polluted ecosystem in the world. Its hydrological structure is singular due to a double stratification of its water column: thermal, due to an input of cold water on the bottom from the South Atlantic Central Water, and haline, with low salinity at the surface due to continental flow. In spite of high primary biomass availability, we observed a decay of mesozooplankton community at inner areas of the bay. The main objective of this study is to analyze composition and abundance of the main mesozooplanktonic organisms throughout a ten years monitoring. We hypothesized that there is an effect of hydrological changes on mesozooplankton community due to climate change. Sampling was made 2-3 times per month during 10 years, with a plankton net (mesh size 200 µm) hauled vertically at a fixed station. The mesozooplankton was dominated by the copepods Acartia tonsa, Paracalanus spp, Temora turbinata, Oncea venusta, Oithona hebes, followed by the Appendicularian, Chaetognatha and Cladocera. Variations were due to seasonal influence and stratification of the water column caused by changes in water masses. The reason of undetected long-term variation of the mesozooplankton at Guanabara Bay could be due to insufficient sampling time or/and the partially effective efficiency of the Program for Remediation of Guanabara Bay implemented by the government of Rio de Janeiro State. The continuity of the long-term monitoring is needed to show changes of the density and composition of mesozooplankton at the Guanabara Bay.


Keywords


Zooplankton; time distribution, hydrological structure; tropical eutrophic bay, LTER

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4257/oeco.2020.2402.09

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