María José Saravia Pietropaolo, Alejandro Percara, Sofia Irene Arce, Martín Anibal Quiroga, Pablo Martín Beldomenico


In January 2016, one Cacicus solitarius bird nestling was found parasitized by subcutaneous larvae in a protected forest of central Argentina. Some larvae were removed from the nestling and reared under laboratory conditions. Using morphological characteristics, the adult flies that emerged were identified as belonging to the Philornis torquans complex. Molecular analysis of the specimens showed identical ITS2 sequences from those previously reported for Philornis flies from Misiones province, in northeastern Argentina. This study presents the first documented association between Philornis and C. solitarius and the first record of the “P. torquans complex genotype Misiones” in central Argentina.


: Avian host; ectoparasite; host-parasite association; parasitic fly; Philornis torquans complex.

Full Text:



Antoniazzi, L. R., Manzoli, D. E., Rohrmann, D., Saravia, M. J., Silvestri, L., & Beldomenico, P. M. 2011. Climate variability affects the impact of parasitic flies on Argentinean forest birds. Journal of Zoology, 283(2), 126–134. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2010.00753.x

Aramburu, R., Berkunsky, I., Formoso, A., & Cicchino, A. 2013. Ectoparasitic load of blue-crowned parakeet (Aratinga a. acuticaudata, Psittacidae) nestlings. Ornitologia Neotropical, 24(3), 257–265.

Arendt, W. J. 1985a. Philornis ectoparasitism of pearly-eyed thrashers. I. Impact on growth and development of nestlings. Auk, 102 (2), 270–280. DOI: 10.2307/4086769

Arendt, W. J. 1985b. Philornis ectoparasitism of pearly-eyed thrashers. II. Effects on adults and reproduction. The Auk, 102(2), 281–292. DOI: 10.2307/4086770

Bermudez, S. E., Buenaventura, E., Couri, M. S., Miranda, R. J., & Herrera, J. M. 2010. Mixed myiasis by Philornis glaucinis (Diptera: Muscidae), Sarcodexia lambens (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia eximia (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Ramphocelus dimidiatus (Aves: Thraupidae) chicks in Panama. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa (S.E.A.), 47(2), 445–446.

Bertonatti, C., & Corcuera, J. 2000. Situación ambiental Argentina 2000. Buenos Aires: Fundación Vida Silvestre. p. 436.

Common, L. K., Dudaniec, R. Y., Colombelli-Négrel, D., & Kleindorfer, S. 2019. Taxonomic shifts in Philornis larval behaviour and rapid changes in Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken (Diptera: Muscidae): an invasive avian parasite on the Galápagos Islands. In: Sarwar, M (Ed.), Life Cycle and Development of Diptera. IntechOpen. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88854.

Couri, M. S. 1999. Myiasis caused by obligatory parasites. Ia. Philornis Meinert (Muscidae). In: J. H. Guimarães & N. Papavero (Eds.), Myiasis in man and animals in the Neotropical region. pp. 44–70. São Paulo: Editora Plêiade.

Couri, M. S., & Carvalho, C. J. B. 2003. Systematic relations among Philornis Meinert, Passeromyia Rodhain & Villeneuve and allied genera (Diptera, Muscidae). Brazilian Journal of Biology, 63(2), 223–232. DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842003000200007

Couri, M. S., Antoniazzi, L. R., Beldomenico, P., & Quiroga, M. 2009. Argentine Philornis Meinert species (Diptera: Muscidae) with synonymic notes. Zootaxa, 2261(1), 52–62. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.2261.1.4

Couri, M. S., Barbosa, L., Marini, M. Â., Duca, C., & Pujol-Luz, J. R. 2018. A new host for Philornis torquans (Diptera, Muscidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 58, e20185857. DOI: 10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.57

de la Peña, M. R. 2005. Las aves de la reserva de Esperanza (Santa Fe). Santa Fe: Ediciones Universidad Nacional del Litoral: p. 74.

de la Peña, M. R. 2013. Nidos y reproducción de las aves argentinas. Serie Naturaleza, Conservación y Sociedad N° 8. Santa Fe: Ediciones Biológica. p. 590.

de la Peña, M. R. 2016. Aves y características de la reserva natural Martín R. de la Peña. Santa Fe: Universidad Nacional del Litoral. p. 411.

Delannoy, C. A., & Cruz, A. 1991. Philornis parasitism and nestling survival of the Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk. In: J. E. Loye & M. Zuk (Eds.), Bird-parasite interactions: Ecology, evolution, and behaviour. pp. 93–103. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Domínguez, M., Reboreda, J. C., & Mahler, B. 2014. Impact of Shiny Cowbird and botfly parasitism on the reproductive success of the globally endangered Yellow Cardinal Gubernatrix cristata. Bird Conservation International, 25(3), 294–305. DOI: 10.1017/s095927091400015x

Dudaniec, R. Y. A., & Kleindorfer, S. 2006. Effects of the parasitic flies of the genus Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on birds. Emu, 106(1), 13–20. DOI: 0.1071/MU04040

Fandiño, B., & Giraudo, A. R. 2010. Revisión del inventario de aves de la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. Revista FABICIB, 14(1), 116–137. DOI: 10.14409/fabicib.v14i1.857

Fraga, R. M. 2011. Giant cowbird (Molothrus oryzivorus) parasitism of red-rumped caciques (Cacicus haemorrhous) in the Atlantic forest, northeastern Argentina. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 123(2), 277–282. DOI: 10.2307/23033395

Herrera, J. M., & Bermúdez, S. E. 2012. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae) in Panama. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 83(3), 854–855. DOI: 10.7550/rmb.25650

Kumar S., Stecher G., & Tamura K. 2016. MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33(7), 1870–1874. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msw054.

Luz, H. R., Ferreira, I., Borja, G. E. M., & Couri, M. S. 2010a. Novo hospedeiro de Philornis deceptivus (Dodge e Aitken, 1968) (Insecta, Diptera, Muscidae) em Dendrocolaptidae (Aves, Passeriformes). Biotemas, 23(1), 97–100. DOI: 10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p97

Luz, H. R., Antonini, R. D., Rodrigues, M. S., Freitas, A. F. N., & da Silva Mello, R. 2010b. First record of Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, 1788 (Aves: Trochilidae). Biotemas, 23(3), 227–229. DOI: 10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n3p227

Monje, L. D., Quiroga, M., Manzoli, D., Couri, M. S., Silvestri, L., Venzal, J. M., Cuervo, P., & Beldomenico, P. M. 2013. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) from Philornis seguyi (García, 1952) and Philornis torquans (Nielsen, 1913) (Diptera: Muscidae). Systematic Parasitology, 86(1), 43–51. DOI: 10.1007/s11230-013-9428-5

Morello, J., Matteucci, S. D., Rodríguez, A. F., & Silva, M. 2012. Ecorregiones y complejos ecosistémicos argentinos. 1st ed. Buenos Aires: Orientación Gráfica Editora: p. 719.

Nei M., & Kumar S. 2000. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. New York: Oxford University Press: p. 333.

Pretelli, M. G., Martínez-Curci, N. S., & Chiaradia, N. M. 2017. Primer registro de parasitismo por Philornis en el cachilo canela (Donacospiza albifrons). Nuestras Aves, 62, 32–33.

Quiroga, M. A., Reboreda, J. C., & Beltzer, A. H. 2012. Host use by Philornis sp. in a passerine community in central Argentina. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 83(1), 110–116. DOI: 10.22201/ib.20078706e.2012.1.1137

Quiroga, M. A., Monje, L. D., Arrabal, J. P., & Beldomenico, P. M. 2016. New molecular data on subcutaneous Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) from southern South America suggests the existence of a species complex. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad, 87(4), 1383–1386. DOI: 10.1016/j.rmb.2016.10.018

Salvador, S. A., & Bodrati, A. 2013. Aves víctimas del parasitismo de moscas del género Philornis en Argentina. Nuestras Aves, 58, 16–21.

Silvestri, L., Antoniazzi, L. R., Couri, M. S., Monje, L. D., & Beldomenico, P.M. 2011. First record of the avian ectoparasite Philornis downsi Dodge andAitken, 1968 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Argentina. Systematic Parasitology, 80(2), 137–140. DOI: 10.1007/s11230-011-9314-y

Sovrano, L. V., Beltzer, A. H., Regner, S. A., Ceppi, G. N., & Molina, M. B. 2018. Nuevo hospedador de Philornis sp. (Diptera, Muscidae) en Butorides striata (Ardeidae, Aves). Oecologia Australis, 22(3), 320–324. DOI: 10.4257/oeco.2018.2203.11

Spalding, M. G., Dunmore, D. E., Mertins, J. W., Walsh, P. B., & Forrester, D. J. 2002. Burrowing fly larvae (Philornis porteri) associated with mortality of eastern bluebirds in Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 38(4), 776–783. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-38.4.776

Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M., & Kumar, S. 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular biology and evolution, 28(10), 2731–2739. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msr121

Teixeira, D. 1999. Myasis caused by obligatory parasites. Ib. General observations on the biology of species of the genus Philornis Meinert, 1890 (Diptera, Muscidae). In: H. Guimarães & N. Papavero (Eds.), Myiasis in man and animals in the Neotropical region. pp. 71–96. São Paulo: Editora Plêiade.



  • There are currently no refbacks.