IMPORTÂNCIA DE MICROHABITATS NA OCORRÊNCIA DE ESPÉCIES DE EPHEMEROPTERA E TRICHOPTERA EM UMA ILHA NO RIO XINGU

Samantha Ribeiro da Silva, Ana Luiza-Andrade, Suyana Karla Ferreira da Silva, Tamyris Pegado de Souza e Silva, Leandro Melo de Sousa, Thiago Bernardi Vieira, Leandro Schlemmer Brasil, Karina Dias-Silva

Abstract


Este trabalho descreveu a abundância, riqueza e composição de gêneros e os grupos funcionais alimentares (GFA) de Ephemeroptera e Trichoptera (ET), em diferentes microhabitats de uma ilha fluvial, na Volta Grande do rio Xingu, Amazônia brasileira. Foram coletados insetos aquáticos em 30 amostras localizadas em poças situadas no interior da ilha (substrato de rochas); e outras 30 amostras situadas na região litorânea da ilha (substrato de seixos). As diferentes facetas da diversidade (abundância, riqueza e composição de gêneros e GFA) foram comparadas entre as amostras de poça com substrato rocha e as da região litorânea com substrato seixo. No total, foram coletados 56 indivíduos distribuídos em 15 gêneros de ET. A maior riqueza estimada de gêneros e o maior número de indivíduos ocorreram nas rochas dos ambientes de poça. A composição de gêneros diferiu entre as rochas dos ambientes de poças, e os seixos dos ambientes litorâneos, sendo a comunidade desse último mais homogênea. Existiam mais organismos raspadores distribuídos predominante nas rochas dos ambientes de poças e organismos filtradores dispostos predominantemente nos seixos dos ambientes litorâneos. A distribuição dos raspadores relacionou-se com a disponibilidade de alimento, uma vez que a ilha possui pouca vegetação e a luz sobre as rochas é propícia para a colonização por biofilme, seu principal recurso alimentar. Na região litorânea, a maior distribuição de filtradores deve-se a maior quantidade de partículas finas suspensas na água, seu principal recurso alimentar. Nossos resultados demonstraram que mesmo em ambientes espacialmente próximos, como em uma pequena ilha, as diferenças de disponibilidade de recursos alimentares em diferentes microhabitats podem influenciar na distribuição em múltiplas facetas da diversidade dos organismos estudados. Portanto, mesmo em ambientes dinâmicos como os grandes rios, a manutenção dos microhabitats é importante para as comunidades de insetos aquáticos.      

IMPORTANCE OF MICROHABITATS IN THE OCCURRENCE OF EPHEMEROPTERA AND TRICHOPTERA SPECIES IN AN ISLAND IN RIO XINGU. This work described the abundance, richness and composition of genera and the functional food groups (GFA) of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera (ET), in different microhabitats of a fluvial island, in Volta Grande of the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon. Aquatic insects were collected from 30 samples located in puddles situated in the interior of the island (rocks as substrate); and another 30 samples located in the coastal margin of the island (pebble as substrate). The different facets of diversity (abundance, richness and composition of genera and GFA) were compared between puddle samples with rock substrate and those from the coastal region with pebble substrate. In total, 56 individuals were collected, distributed in 15 genera ET. The greatest estimated genera richness and the largest number of individuals occurred in the rocks of the puddle environments. The composition of genera differed between the rocks in the puddle environments and the pebbles in the coastal environments, with the community of the latter being more homogeneous. There were more scraper organisms distributed predominantly in the rocks of the puddle environments and filtering organisms arranged predominantly in the pebbles of the coastal environments. The distribution of scrapers is related to the availability of food, since the island has little vegetation and the light on the rocks is favorable for colonization by biofilm, its main food resource. In the coastal region, the greater distribution of filters is related to the greater number of fine particles suspended in water, its main food resource. The results demonstrate that even in spatially close environments, such as on a small island, differences in the availability of food resources in different microhabitats can influence the distribution in multiple facets of diversity. Thus, even in dynamic environments such as large rivers, maintaining microhabitats is important for aquatic insect communities.

Keywords


Amazon; aquatic insects; dams; rock; puddles.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4257/oeco.2021.2503.03

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