DIVERSIDADE FUNCIONAL DE COMUNIDADES DE PEIXES DE RIACHO

Fabrício B. Teresa, Carlos A.S. Rodrigues-Filho, Rafael P. Leitão

Abstract


Na última década houve notável aumento no número de estudos buscando incorporar as características funcionais das espécies na quantificação da diversidade das comunidades (i.e., diversidade funcional). A abordagem funcional vem contribuindo para avanços na ecologia teórica e aplicada. Estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil representam uma porção significativa da produção científica mundial sobre diversidade funcional de peixes de riachos. Entretanto, há um claro viés, com a maior parte dos estudos avaliando a resposta das comunidades aos gradientes ambientais naturais e antrópicos. Outras linhas de investigação, como conservação e o efeito da biodiversidade sobre o funcionamento dos ecossistemas, ainda são escassas. Destacamos aqui as bases conceituais e metodológicas da abordagem funcional na ictiologia. Discutimos questões chave, como a seleção dos atributos funcionais em peixes de riacho, as principais facetas da diversidade funcional e os índices que podem ser utilizados para calculá-las, noções gerais sobre composição funcional, diversidade beta funcional e modelos nulos. Também abordamos o estado da arte dos estudos de diversidade funcional no Brasil e levantamos as principais lacunas e perspectivas para o avanço no conhecimento da ecologia funcional com peixes de riacho.

FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY OF STREAM FISH: In the last decade there was a remarkable increase in the number of studies incorporating species functional traits to quantify the diversity of communities (i.e., functional diversity). The functional approach has contributed to advances in theoretical and applied ecology. Studies developed in Brazil represent a significant portion of the world's scientific production on stream fish functional diversity. However, there is a clear bias, with most studies assessing communities' response to natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. Other research areas such as conservation and the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning are still scarce. Here we highlight the conceptual and methodological bases of the functional approach in ichthyology. We discuss key questions such as functional trait selection for stream fish, the main facets of functional diversity and indices to calculate them, general notions on functional composition, functional beta diversity and null models. We also address the state of the art of functional diversity studies in Brazil and raised the main gaps and perspectives for advancing the knowledge of stream fish functional ecology.

 


Keywords


Biodiversity; Community Ecology; Functional Ecology; Ecologia funcional; Neotropics; Ichthyofauna

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4257/oeco.2021.2502.12

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