MANAGEMENT FORESTAL AND IMPLICATIONS SOCIO-ENVIRONMENT IN EASTERN AMAZON.
Keywords:Amazon, Paricá, reforestation.
The Amazonie Most soils from the Amazon region are characterized by a low fertility and a strong acidity. The present deforestation of this area, unfolding in a context of geological, geomorphological and climatic heterogeneity, is mainly caused by the deficient technology associated with current land-use together with the inadequate use of fire as the main cultivation technique involved in the plantation of forest species or crops, especially when illegal, resulting in environmental impacts, such as erosion, water pollution, the loss of nutrients and a reduction of biodiversity. This directly affects the society, mainly the small farmers and ‘ribeirinhos', the so-called inhabitants of rivers' shores. In the biggest part of the Brazilian Amazon, governments, producers and researchers have looked for new ways of managing the forest, such as those using forest, urban or animals' residues. Beyond favoring an increase of soil fertility and the sustainability of forest plantations, they are also plus contributing to solve another environmental problem, such as the reutilization of industrial or urban residues. In this context, an experiment conducted by Company of Lamination Tailâminas Plac, located in the city of Tailândia - State of Pará, and by researchers from the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG) has shown that the addition of wooden residues at the base of Paricá trees concurred to increase the bio-availability of soil nutrients, reflecting in the quality of the planted specimens, both in terms of diameter and height. This treatment, besides improving the quality of the tree crop, also allows for a clean use of the residues proceeding from the highly pollutant industrial practice of wood processing, that causes a great deal of upheaval to society due to the high degree of visual pollution of the residues, when stored in the open, added to the illnesses affecting the respiratory system. The adoption of adequate handling systems that favors more sustainable agricultural and forestry practices also helps in the reduction of harmful gas emissions to the atmosphere. Morever, it allows for benefiting of environnemental services associated with the presence of secondary vegetation, which include an improvement of carbon balance and of water transport to the atmosphere, as well as from a reduction of leaching resulting from the presence of a highly protective root system.