Clinical and radiological features of main dementias


  • Jean Lima Fontenele
  • Cássy Geovanna Ferreira Moura
  • Giuliano da Paz Oliveira





Dementia is a syndrome characterized by a decline of two or more cognitive functions, affecting social or professional life. Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents 53% of dementia cases; memory loss, inability to recognize faces, impaired judgement, disorientation and confusion are possible common symptoms. Vascular Dementia is responsible for 42% of dementia cases, due to cerebrovascular pathologies, and the clinical aspects are related to the extension and location of the brain injury. Lewy Bodies Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents 15% of dementia cases, and its symptoms include visual hallucinations, parkinsonism and fluctuating cognitive decline. Frontotemporal dementia is a group of clinical syndromes, divided in Behavioral-variant, characterized by disinhibition, compulsions, apathy, aberrant sexual behavior and executive dysfunction; and Primary Progressive Aphasia, which is subdivided in Nonfluentvariant and Semantic-variant. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a reversible cause of dementia, with a wide clinical feature, that includes psychiatric symptoms such as depression and irritability, hematological symptoms related to anemia (e.g. dyspnea and fatigue), and neurological symptoms including dementia and neuropathy. Normal pressure hydrocephalus is also reversible, presenting forgetfulness, changes in mood, decline of executive functions, reduced attention, and a lack of interest in daily activities as symptoms. The radiological findings vary depending on the etiology of dementia. For that reason, understanding neuroimaging and clinical aspects is important to diagnose effectively