Language Policies and Linguistic Culture in Galicia

Anik Nandi

Resumo


National language policy which is implemented from the top is perceived as official legislation designed to influence people's linguistic lives. In the Castilian-dominated Galician linguistic landscape, this paper examines the impact of last thirty years' top-down language policies on the “linguistic culture” (Schiffman, 1996) of the Galicians and analyses the role of grassroots level actors or agents who play a significant role in interpreting and implementing language policy on the ground. Linguistic culture, as Schiffman (2006, p. 112) describes it, is the “sum totality of ideas, values, beliefs, attitudes, prejudices, myths, religious strictures, and all the other cultural ‘baggage' that speakers bring to their dealings with language from their culture”. This will inevitably lead us to an examination of the essential macro level linguistic and non-linguistic variables such as socio-political, socio-economic, socio-cultural, sociolinguistic factors present in the Galician society influencing the ideological construct and revitalisation practices of the community. Concurrently, this article offers a brief overview of the sociolinguistic history of Galician, as a means of contextualising existing debates related to language policies since the outset of the Galician Autonomy. It starts with a discussion on the significance of the 1983 Linguistic Normalisation Act, the immediate effects it had on Galician and on its public visibility which will be further related to the various understandings of notions such as linguistic normalisation and societal bilingualism which have been an integral part of LPP discourse over the course of last three decades. To conclude, the chapter will also offer a critical account of the recent developments in grassroots level Galician language activism such as the creation of Galician medium pre-primary immersion schools through co-operative mobilisations and crowd-sourcing; these schools came about as a reaction to the contemporary state-imposed language policies from the present centre-right wing government (2009-present).  


Palavras-chave


Galician language; language policy; linguistic culture; language revitalization; bilingualism

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


ALTHUSSER, Luis. Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. In: Lenin and Philosophy and other Essays, 1971, p. 121–176.

ÁLVAREZ, Elisa. La Academia Galega recurre al constitucional el decreto del plurilingüismo. La Voz de Galicia. 29

April 2015. Available from: http://www.lavozdegalicia.es/noticia/galicia/2015/04/28/academia-galegarecurre-constitucional-decreto-plurilinguismo/00031430236939629766988.htm. [accessed on 07 January 2016].

ÁLVAREZ, Elisa. La Xunta unifica todas sus escuelas infantiles y elimina las galescolas. La Voz de Galicia. 18 August 2009. Available from: http://www.lavozdegalicia.es/galicia/2009/08/19/0003_7916181.htm. [accessed on 10 January 2016].

ÁLVAREZ, Elisa. Vázquez sitúa el problema del gallego en que no se emplea al salir de la escuela. La Voz de Galicia. 13 December 2014. Available from: http://www.lavozdegalicia.es/noticia/galicia/2014/12/13/vazquez-situaproblema-gallego-emplea-salir-escuela/0003_201412G13P5994.htm. [accessed on 12/01/16].

ÁLVAREZ-BLANCO, Rosario (coord.); FERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, Mauro; FORMOSO-GOSENDE, Valentina; MONTEAGUDO, Henrique; RAMALLO, Fernando and SILVA-VALDIVIA, Bieito. Prácticas e actitudes lingüísticas

da mocidade en Galicia. Santiago de Compostela: Consello da Cultura Galega, 2017. Available from: http://consellodacultura.gal/mediateca/extras/CCG_2017_Practicas-e-actitudes-linguisticas-da-mocidade-enGalicia.pdf. [accessed on 05/06/17].

ÁLVAREZ-CÁCCAMO, Celso. Contra o capitalismo linguístico: perante a crise da língua na Galiza. Agália, Revista de

Estudos na Cultura, v. 104, nº 2, p. 11-28, 2011.

ANDERSON, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. 2nd ed. New

York: Verso Books, 1991.

BALDAUF, Richard. Jr. Rearticulating the case for micro language planning in a language ecology context. Current

Issues in Language Planning, v. 7, nº 2, p. 147-170, 2006.

BERAMENDI-GONZÁLEZ, Justo. De provincia a nación. Historia do galeguismo político, Vigo: Xerais, 2007.

BOURDIEU, Pierre. Language and symbolic power. Oxford: Polity, 1991.

COOPER, Robert. Language Planning and Social Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

CORSON, David. Language Policy across the Curriculum. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1996.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE. European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. 2016. Available from: http://www.coe.int/en/web/european-charter-regional-or-minority-languages/text-of-the-charter. [accessed on 05/06/17].

CURDT-CHRISTIANSEN, Xiao Lan. Visible and invisible language planning: Ideological factors in the family language policy of Chinese immigrant families in Quebec. Language Policy, v. 8, nº 4, p. 351–375, 2009.

DE MEJÍA, Anne-Marie. Power, Prestige and Bilingualism: International Perspectives on Elite Bilingual Education.

Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2002.

DEL VALLE, José. Monoglossic policies for a heteroglossic culture: misinterpreted multilingualism in modern

Galicia. Language and Communication, v. 20, p. 105-132, 2000.

EAGLETON, Terry. Ideology: An Introduction. London: Verso, 1991.

FISHMAN, Joshua. Reversing language shift: Theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened

languages. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters, 1991.

FORMOSO-GOSENDE, Valentina. Do estigma á estima. Propostas para un novo discurso lingüístico. Vigo: Xerais,

FOUCAULT, Michel. The Order of Things: An Archeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Vintage, 1994.

GALICIA CONFIDENCIAL. Pais e profesionais organízanse para impulsar o ensino en Galego. Galicia Confidencial,

March 2014. available from: [accessed 19/06/16].

HERMIDA, Xosé. Feijóo atribuye a las familias la caída del uso del gallego entre los niños. El País, 14th December

Available from: http://www.galiciaconfidencial.com/noticia/17979-pais-profesionaisorganizanse-impulsar-ensino-galego. [accessed on 12 January 2016].

HERRERO-VALEIRO, Mário. The discourse of language in Galiza: Normalisation, diglossia, and conflict. Estudios de

Sociolingüística, v. 3, nº 2, p. 289–320, 2002.

IGLESIAS-ÁLVAREZ, Ana. Actitudes e prexuízos lingüísticos en Galicia. A súa infuencia nos usos., A letra miúdaRevista de sociolingüística da CGENDL, v. 1, 2012. Available from: http://coordinadoraendl.org/aletramiuda/index.php?art=art2_n1.html. [accessed on 10 January 2016].

INSTITUTO GALEGO DE ESTATÍSTICA. Enquisa de Condicións de Vida das Familias. Coñecemento e Uso do Galego. Ano 2013. Santiago de Compostela: Instituto Galego de Estatística (IGE). 2014. Available from: www.ige.eu. [accessed on 18/06/16].

LA OPINIÓN. Villanueva atribuye la pérdida de ´galegofalantes´ a la falta de transmisión en las familias. La

Opinión, 16 December 2014. Available from: http://www.laopinioncoruna.es/sociedad/2014/12/16/villanueva-atribuye-perdida-galegofalantes-falta/909510.html. [accessed on 05/06/17].

LOREDO-GUTIÉRREZ, Xaquín. Aproximación á situación sociolingüística en Galicia. A evolución da transmisión

lingüística interxeracional do Galego. In: A letra miúda- Revista de sociolingüística da CGENDL, No. 6. 2015.

Available from: http://coordinadoraendl.org/aletramiuda/index.php?art=art3_n6.html. [accessed on 10

January 2016].

LOSADA, Antón. Os modelos da política lingüística de Galicia. In: MONTEAGUDO, Henrique (Ed.) Linguas,

sociedade e política: Un debate multidisciplinary. Santiago: Consello da Cultura Galega, 2012, p. 169-196.

LOUREIRO-RODRIGUEZ, Verónica. Conflicting values at a conflicting age: Linguistic ideologies in Galician

adolescents. In: NIÑO-MURCIA, Mercedes and Rothman, Jason (Eds.) Bilingualism and identity: Spanish at the

crossroads with other languages. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2008, p. 63-85.

LYNCH, Andrew. Spain's Minoritized Languages in Brief Sociolinguistic Perspective. Romance Notes, v. 51, nº 1, p.

-24, 2011.

MCCARTY, Teresa. Ethnography and language policy. New York and London: Routledge, 2011.

MONTEAGUDO, Henrique; ALONSO-PINTOS, Serfín. Que lusofonia para a Galiza? In: MARTINS, Mosisés de Lemos;

CABECINHAS, Rosa; ACEDO, Lurdes. (Eds.) Anuário Internacional de Comunicação Lusófona: Lusofonía e

sociedade em rede. Braga: Universidade do Minho/Gracio Editor, 2010, p. 177–187.

MONTEAGUDO, Henrique; BOUZADA, Xan. O proceso de normalización do idioma galego (1980-2000). Política

Lingüística: análise e perspectivas, Vol II. Santiago de Compostela: Consello da Cultura Galega, 2002.

MONTEAGUDO, Henrique; BOUZADA, Xan. O proceso de normalización do idioma galego (1980-2000). Elaboración e difusión da lingua, Vol III. Santiago: Consello da Cultura Galega, 2003.

MONTEAGUDO, Henrique. Facer país co idioma. Sentido da normalización lingüística. A Coruña: Real Academia

Galega, 2012a.

MONTEAGUDO, Henrique. Política lingüística en Galicia: Apuntes para un nuevo balance. In: KREMNITZ, George;

CICHON, Peter; CZERNILOFSKY-BASALKA, Barbara (Eds.) Quo vadis, Romania? Wien: Institut für Romanistik,

Universität Wein, 2012b, p. 21-39.

MONTEAGUDO, Henrique; LOREDO, Xaquín; VÁZQUEZ-FERNÁNDEZ, Martín. Lingua e sociedade en Galicia. A

evolución sociolingüística 1992-2012. Santiago de Compostela: Real Academia Galega, 2017.

MONTEAGUDO, Henrique; LORENZO-SUÁREZ, Anxo; CASARES-BERG, Håkan; LOREDO, Xaquín; SUÁREZ, Isabel.

A sociedade galega e o idioma. Santiago de Compostela: Consello da Cultura Galega, 2006.

NANDI, Anik; DEVASUNDARAM, Ashvin. ‘Contesting the Conventionalising of Castilian: The Role of Galician

Parents as Counter-Elites’. In: LAUCHLAN, Fraser; PARAFITA-COUTO, Maria del Carmen (eds). Bilingualism and

Minority Languages in Europe: Current trends and developments. Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom:

Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017, p. 12-33.

NANDI, Anik. Estratexias familiares para a transmisión interxeracional do galego. Grial. Revista Galega de Cultura, v. 211 (July, August and September), p. 123-131, 2016b.

NANDI, Anik. La Regulación del Multilingüismo en la India: Una Perspectiva Sociolingüística. Papeles de la India

(Spanish Journal of Indian Council for Cultural Relations), v. 40, nº 2, p. 91-111, 2011.

NANDI, Anik. Language policies on the ground: Parental language management in urban Galician homes,

unpublished doctoral thesis, Edinburgh, United Kingdom: Heriot-Watt University, 2016a.

NANDI, Anik. Parents as stakeholders: Language management in urban Galician homes. In a special issue on Family Language Policy edited by CURDT-CHRISTIANSEN, Xiao Lan and LANZA, Elizabeth in Multilingua: Journal of

Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication, in press.

O’ROURKE, Bernadette; RAMALLO, Fernando. Competing ideologies of linguistic authority amongst newspeakers

in contemporary Galicia. Language in Society, v. 42, p. 287–305, 2013.

O’ROURKE, Bernadette; RAMALLO, Fernando. Neofalantes as an active minority: understanding language

practices and motivations for change amongst new speakers of Galician. International Journal for the Sociology

of Language, v. 231, p. 147-165, 2015.

O’ROURKE, Bernadette. Galician and Irish in the European Context: Attitudes towards Weak and Strong Minority

Languages. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

O’ROURKE, Bernadette; PUJOLAR, Joan; RAMALLO, Fernando. New speakers of minority languages: The

challenging opportunity – Foreword. International Journal for the Sociology of Language, v. 231, p. 1–20, 2015.

PARDO-VUELTA, María. Panorámica sociolingüística de la lengua gallega (siglo XX-XXI). Confluenze, v. 7, nº 2, p.

-70, 2015.

PELED, Yael. Normative language policy: interface and inferences. Language Policy, v. 13, p. 301–315, 2014.

PERES-GONÇALVES, Tiago. Breve história do reintegracionismo. Santiago de Compostela: Através editor, 2014.

RAMALLO, Fernando. Cara a unha tipoloxía sociolingüística dos falantes de Galego. In: SILVA-VALDIVIA, Bieito;

RODRÍGUEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, Xesús; VAQUERO-QUINTELA, Isabel (Eds.) Educación e linguas en Galicia. Santiago

de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 2010, p. 15–37.

RAMALLO, Fernando. El gallego en la familia: entre la producción y la reproducción. Caplletra, v. 53, p. 167-191, 2012.

REGUEIRA, Xosé Luís. Política y lengua en Galicia: la ‘normalización’ de la lengua gallega. In: CASTILLO-LLUCH,

Mónica; KABATEK, Johannes (Eds.) Las lenguas de España. Política lingüística, sociología del lenguaje e ideología

desde la Transición hasta la actualidad. Madrid / Frankfurt am Main: Iberoamericana / Vervuert, p. 61-93, 2006.

RICENTO and HORNBERGER Unpeeling the onion: Language planning and policy and the ELT professional. TESOL

Quarterly, v. 30, nº 3, 401-27, 1996.

SÁNCHEZ-VIDAL, Pablo. O Debate Normativo da Lingua Galega (1980-2000). A Coruña: Fundación Barrié de la

Maza, 2010.

SCHIFFMAN, Harold. Linguistic culture and language policy. London: Routledge, 1996.

SCHIFFMAN, Harold. Linguistic policy and linguistic culture. In: RICENTO, Tomas (Ed.) An introduction to language

policy: Theory and method. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006, p. 111–126.

SEMINARIO DE SOCIOLINGÜÍSTICA DA RAG. Actitudes lingüísticas: compendio do volume III do mapa

sociolingüístico de Galicia. A Coruña: Real Academia Galega, 1996.

SHOHAMY, Elena. Language Policy: Hidden Agendas and New Approaches. London/New York: Routledge, 2006.

SILVA-VALDIVIA, Bieito. Lingua e escola en Galicia. Balance e propostas de future. Grial, v. 179, p. 48-59, 2008.

SILVA-VALDIVIA, Bieito. Máis competentes en castelán que en Galego. Tempos Novos, v. 158, p. 43-47, 2010.

SPOLSKY, Bernard. Language management. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

TOLLEFSON, James William. Language education policy in late modernity: insights from situated approaches—

commentary. Language Policy, v. 14, nº 2, p. 183–189, 2015. Available from: DOI 10.1007/s10993-014-9353-8

[accessed on 22/03/16].

WOOLARD, Kathryn. Language and Identity Choice in Catalonia: The Interplay of Contrasting Ideologies of

Linguistic Authority. In: SÜSELBECK, Kirsten; MÜHLSCHLEGEL, Ulrike; MASSON, Peter (Eds.) Lengua, nación e

identidad. La regulación del plurilingüismo en España y América Latina. Madrid: Iberoamericana Vervuert, 2008,

p. 303-324.

XUNTA DE GALICIA. Lei de Normalización Lingüística. 1983. Available from: http://www.parlamentodegalicia.es/sitios/web/BibliotecaLeisdeGalicia/Lei3_1983.pdf1983. [accessed on 19 January 2017].




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24206/lh.v3i2.17124

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Direitos autorais 2018 LaborHistórico

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.

Licença Creative Commons

LaborHistórico | ISSN 2359-6910

A Revista LaborHistórico da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro está licenciada com uma Licença Creative Commons - Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional.