• Rodrigo Paulo da Cunha Araújo Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
  • André Lucas Amaral Monteiro Rodrigues Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora
  • Maron Galliez Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro



species inventory, environmental conflicts, anthropogenic impacts


The establishment of protected areas is central for biodiversity conservation, but it may cause conflicts between the environmental agencies and the local citizens. In this study we aimed to survey the medium and large sized mammals in an Atlantic Forest protected area located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to understand how the local citizens felt about the establishment of the Paraíso Unit. Between June and December 2015, we used 1,754 camera-days to record the mammals of Três Picos State Park – Paraíso Unit. To assess the citizens’ felling about the Paraíso Unit, we conducted 25 interviews. We recorded 10 species, belonging to seven orders, classified into four dietary guilds. Among recorded species, four species are considered vulnerable in the state of Rio de Janeiro: Puma concolor, Leopardus pardalis, Pecari tajacu, and Cuniculus paca. A part of the citizens claimed losses in their activities. The main complaints were about the lack of dialogue with the park administration, the restricted access to waterfalls and trails inside the park and downturn in local commerce. According to the interviewed residents, the poaching pressure was greater on C. paca, Dasypus novemcinctus, and Dasyprocta leporina. To minimize the conflicts Paraíso Unit must improve the protected area governance, implementing its management plan in a participatory, inclusive and equity way.

Author Biography

Rodrigo Paulo da Cunha Araújo, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Departamento de Ecologia; Mestrando em Ecologia e Evolução.


Alves, L. C. P. S., & Andriolo, A. 2005. Camera traps used on the mastofaunal survey of Araras Biological Reserve, IEF-RJ. Revista Brasileira de Zoociências, 7(2), 231–246.

Atickem, A., Bekele, A., & Williams, S. D. 2010. Competition between domestic dogs and Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. African Journal of Ecology 48(2), 401–407. DOI:

Aximoff, I., Spencer, C., & Vaz, S. M. 2015. Mamíferos de médio e grande porte no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia. Oecologia australis, 19(1), 215–231. DOI:

Bastos-Neto, O. J., de Oliveira, E. G. R., de Souza, D. P., Mello, B. F., Amorim, T. O. S., Gomes, K. C. P., & Andriolo, A. 2009. Mamíferos de um fragmento florestal particular periurbano de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoociências, 11(3), 269–276.

Bergallo, H. G., Rocha, C. F. D., Alves, M. A. S., & Van Sluys, M., (Eds.). 2000. A fauna ameaçada de extinção do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro: EDUERJ: p. 166.

Bodmer, R. E., Eisenberg, J. F., & Redford, K. H. 1997. Hunting and the Likelihood of Extinction of Amazonian Mammals. Conservation Biology, 11(2), 460–466. DOI:

Campos, C. B., Esteves, C.F., Ferraz, K. M. P. M. B., Crawshaw Jr, P. G., & Verdade, L. M. 2007. Diet of free-ranging cats and dogs in a suburban and rural environment, south-eastern Brazil. Journal of Zoology, 273(1), 14–20. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00291.x

Canale, G. R., Peres, C. A., Guidorizzi, C. E., Gatto, C. A. F., & Kierulff, M. C. M. 2012. Pervasive defaunation of forest remnants in a tropical biodiversity hotspot. PloS one, 7(8), e41671. DOI;

Carrillo, E., Wong, G., & Cuarón, A. D. 2000. Monitoring mammal populations in Costa Rican protected areas under different hunting restrictions. Conservation biology, 14(6), 1580–1591. DOI:

Carvalho, I. D., De Oliveira, R., & Dos Santos Pires, A. 2014. Medium and large-sized mammals of the Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, Cachoeiras de Macacu, RJ. 2014. Bioneotropica 14(3), 1–9. DOI:

Carvalho, W. D., Rosalino, L. M., Godoy, M. S. A. M., Giorgete, M. F., Adania, C. H., & Esbérard, C. E. L. 2019. Temporal activity of rural free-ranging dogs: implications for the predator and prey species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. NeoBiota, 45, 55–74. DOI:

Cerqueira, R., Garay, I., & Dias, B. 2001. Um sistema de monitoramento e inventário da biodiversidade terrestre do Brasil. In: I. Garay & B.F.S. Dias (Eds.), Conservação e biodiversidade em ecossistemas tropicais: avanços conceituais e revisão de novas metodologias de avaliação e monitoramento. pp. 147–149. Petrópolis: Vozes.

Chape, S., Harrison, J., Spalding, M., & Lysenko, I. 2005. Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360(1454), 443–455. DOI:

Cid, B., Figueira, L., de T. e Mello, A. F., Pires, A. S., & Fernandez, F. A. 2014. Short-term success in the reintroduction of the red-humped agouti Dasyprocta leporina, an important seed disperser, in a Brazilian Atlantic Forest reserve. Tropical Conservation Science, 7(4), 796–810. DOI:

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). 2010. Aichi Target 11 - Technical Rationale Extended, COP/10/INF/12/Rev.1. Retrieved from:

Cullen Jr, L., Bodmer, R. E., & Valladares-Pádua, C. 2000. Effects of hunting in habitat fragments of the Atlantic forests, Brazil. Biological conservation, 95(1), 49–56. DOI:

Cullen Jr., L., Bodmer, R. E., & Valladares-Pádua, C. 2001. Ecological consequences of hunting in Atlantic forest patches, São Paulo, Brazil. Oryx, 35(2), 137–144. DOI:

Dantas-Aguiar, P. R., Barreto, R. M., Santos-Fita, D., & Santos, E. B. 2011. Hunting activities and wild fauna use: a profile of queixo d’antas community, campo formoso, Bahia, Brazil. Bioremediation, Biodiversity and Bioavailability, 5(1), 34–43.

Delciellos, A., Detogne, N., Novaes, R., Vieira, N., Loguercio, M., Bergallo, H., Geise, L., Raíces, D., Santori, R., Felix, S., Souza, R., da Silva, C., Papi, B., & Rocha-Barbosa, O. 2012.

Mammals of Serra da Bocaina National Park, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Check List, 8(4), 675–692. DOI:

Doherty, T. S., Dickman, C. R., Glen, A. S., Newsome, T. M.,

Nimmo, D. G., Ritchie, E. G., Vanak, A. T., & Wirsing, A. J. 2017. The global impacts of domestic dogs on threatened vertebrates. Biological Conservation, 210, 56–59. DOI:

Ericsson, G., & Heberlein, T. A. 2003. Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back. Biological Conservation, 111(2), 149–159. DOI:

Escamilla, A., Sanvicente, M., Sosa, M., & Galindo‐Leal, C. 2000. Habitat mosaic, wildlife availability, and hunting in the tropical forest of Calakmul, Mexico. Conservation Biology, 14(6), 1592–1601. DOI:

Ferreira, G. A., Nakano-Oliveira, E., Andriolo, A., & Genaro, G. 2018. Spatial overlap between domestic cats and wild felines in an insular Atlantic Forest remnant. Animal Biology, 69(2), 1–16. DOI: 10.1163/15707563-17000110.

Ferreira, G.A., & Genaro, G. 2017. Predation of birds by domestic cats on a Neotropical island. International Journal of Avian & Wildlife Biology, 2(2), 60–63. DOI:10.15406/ijawb.2017.02.00017.

Ferreira, G.A., Nakano-Oliveira, E., & Genaro, G. 2014. Domestic cat predation on Neotropical species in an insular Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil. Wildlife Biology, 20(3), 167–176. DOI:

Filoni, C., Catão-Dias, J. L., Bay, G., Durigon, E. L., Jorge, R. S. P., Lutz, H., & Hofmann-Lehmann, R. 2006. First evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and Ehrlichia exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 42(2), 470–477. DOI:

Fischer, J., & Lindenmayer, D. B. 2007. Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis. Global ecology and biogeography, 16(3), 265–280. DOI:

Furtado, M. M., de Ramos Filho, J. D., Scheffer, K. C., Coelho, C. J., Cruz, P. S., Ikuta, C. Y., Jácomo, A. T. A., Porfírio, G. E. O., Silveira, L., Sollmann, R., Tôrres, N. M., & Neto, J. S. F. 2013. Serosurvey for selected viral infections in free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca) and domestic carnivores in Brazilian Cerrado, Pantanal, and Amazon. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 49(3), 510–521. DOI:

Galetti, M., Brocardo, C. R., Begotti, R. A., Hortenci, L., Rocha-Mendes, F., Bernardo, C. S. S., Bueno, R. S., Nobre, R.,

Bovendorp, R. S., Marques, R. M., Meirelles, F., Gobbo, S. K., Beca, G., Schmaedecke, G., & Siqueira, T., 2016a. Defaunation and biomass collapse of mammals in the largest Atlantic forest remnant. Animal Conservation, 20(3), 270–281. DOI:

Gerhold, R.W., & Jessup, D.A. 2013. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats. Zoonosis and Public Health, 60(3), 189–195. DOI:

Gompper, M. E. 2013. Free-ranging dogs and wildlife conservation. Oxford: Oxford University Press: p. 336.

Goulart, F. V. B., Cáceres, M. C., Graipel, M. E., Tortato, M. A., Ghizoni, I. R., & Oliveira-Santos, L. G. R. 2009. Habitat selection by large mammals in a southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mammalian Biology – Zeitschriftfür Säugetierkunde, 74(3), 182–190. DOI:

Graipel, M. E., Cherem, J. J., Monteiro-Filho, E. L. A., & Carmignotto, A. P. 2017. Mamíferos da Mata Atlântica. In: Monteiro-Filho, E.L.A., & Conte, C.E. (Org.), Revisões em Zoologia: Mata Atlântica. pp. 391–482. Curitiba: EdUFPR.

Hanazaki, N., Alves, R. R., & Begossi, A. 2009. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5(1), 36. DOI:

Harmsen, B. J., Foster, R. J., Silver, S., Ostro, L., & Doncaster, C. P. 2010. Differential use of trails by forest mammals and the implications for camera trap studies: a case study from Belize. Biotropica, 42(1), 126–133. DOI:

Hughes, J., & Macdonald, D. W. 2013. A review of the interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs and wildlife. Biological Conservation, 157, 341–351. DOI:

Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio). 2018. Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção (Volume II): Mamíferos. Brasília: Editora ICMBio/MMA: p. 625

INEA. 2013. Plano de Manejo do Parque Estadual dos Três Picos: Resumo Executivo. Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Estadual do Ambiente (INEA): p. 100.

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-2. Retrieved on November 6th, 2019, from

Jonker, S. A., Muth, R. M., Organ, J. F., Zwick, R. R., & Siemer, W. F. 2006. Experiences with beaver damage and attitudes of Massachusetts residents toward beaver. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34(4), 1009–1021. DOI:[1009:EWBDAA]2.0.CO;2

Kindt, R., & Coe, R. 2005. Tree diversity analysis: a manual and software for common statistical methods for ecological and biodiversity studies. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre: p. 207.

Kurtz, B. C., & de Araújo, D. S. D. 2000. Composição florística e estrutura do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Mata Atlântica na Estação Ecológica Estadual do Paraíso, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Rodriguésia, 51(78/79), 69–111.

Laurance, W. F., Croes, B. M., Tchignoumba, L., Lahm, S. A., Alonso, A., Lee, M. E., Campbell, P., & Ondzeano, C. 2006. Impacts of Roads and Hunting on Central African Rainforest Mammals. Conservation Biology, 20, 1251–1261. DOI:

Lessa, I. C. M., & Bergallo, H. G. 2012. Modelling the

population control of the domestic cat: an example from an island in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 72(3), 445–452. DOI:

Lessa, I., Guimarães, T. C. S., Bergallo, H. G., Cunha, A., & Vieira, E. M. 2016. Domestic dogs in protected areas: a threat to Brazilian mammals?. Natureza & Conservação, 14(2), 46–56. DOI:

Lindenmayer, D. B., & Noss, R. F. 2006. Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology, 20(4), 949–958. DOI:

Magurran, A. E. 2004. Measuring biological diversity. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing: p. 264.

Medina, F.M., Bonnaud, E., Vidal, E., & Nogales, M. 2014. Underlying impacts of invasive cats on

islands: not only a question of predation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 23(2), 327–342. DOI:

Mittermeier R. A., Turner W. R., Larsen F. W., Brooks T. M., & Gascon, C. 2011. In: Global Biodiversity Conservation: The Critical Role of Hotspots. In: Zachos F., Habel J. (Eds.) Biodiversity Hotspots. pp. 3–22. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. DOI:

Modesto, T. C., Pessôa, F. S., Enrici, M. C., Attias, N., Jordão-Nogueira, T., Costa, L. M., Albuquerque, H. G., & Bergallo, H. G. 2008. Mamíferos do Parque Estadual do Desengano, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Biota Neotropica, 8(4). DOI:

Muylaert, R. L., Vancine, M. H., Bernardo, R., Oshima, J. E. F., Sobral-Souza, T., Tonetti, V. R., Niebuhr, B. B., & Ribeiro, M. C. 2018. Uma nota sobre os limites territoriais da Mata Atlântica. Oecologia Australis, 22(3), 302–311. DOI:

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Da Fonseca, G. A., & Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403(6772), 853–858. DOI:

Naughton-Treves, L., Mena, J. L., Treves, A., Alvarez, N., & Radeloff, V. C. 2003. Wildlife Survival Beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Slash-and-Burn Agriculture and Hunting on Mammals in Tambopata, Peru. Conservation Biology, 17(4), 1106–1117. DOI:

Norris, D., Ramírez, J. M., Zacchi, C., & Galetti, M. 2012. A survey of mid and large bodied mammals in Núcleo Caraguatatuba, Serra do Mar State Park, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 12(2), 127–133. DOI:

Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F. G., Friendly, M., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., McGlinn, D., Minchin, P. R., O'Hara, R. B., Simpson, G. L., Solymos, P., Stevens, M. H. H., Szoecs, E., & Wagner, H. 2019. vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.5-6.

Paschoal, A. M. O., Massara, R. L., Santos, J. L., & Chiarello, A. G. 2012. Is the domestic dog becoming an abundant species in the Atlantic forest? A study case in southeastern Brazil. Mammalia, 76(1), 67–76. DOI:

Paglia, A. P., Fonseca, G. A. B., Rylands, A. B., Herrmann, G., Aguiar, L. M. S., Chiarello, A. G., Leite, Y. L. R., Costa, L. P., Siciliano, S., Kierulff, M. C. M., Mendes, S. L., Tavares, V. C., Mittermeier, R. A., & Patton, J. L. 2012. Annotated Checklist of Brazilian Mammals. 2nd ed. Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology, No. 6. Arlington, VA: Conservation International: p. 76.

Pianca, C. C. 2004. A caça e seus efeitos sobre a ocorrência de mamíferos de médio e grande porte em áreas preservadas de Mata Atlântica na Serra de Paranapiacaba (SP). Master Thesis. Escola Superior de Agricultura de Luiz de Queiroz, Universidade de São Paulo. p. 90.

Primack, R. B., & Rodrigues, E. 2001. Biologia da conservação. Londrina: Editora Planta: p. 328.

Redford, K. H. 1992. The empty forest. BioScience, 42(6), 412–422. DOI:10.2307/1311860.

Rezende, C. L., Scarano, F. R., Assad, F. R., Joly, C. A., Metzger, J. P., Strassburg, B. B. N., Tabarelli, M., Fonseca, G. A., & Mittermeier, R. A., 2018. From hotspot to hopespot: an opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation, 16(4), 208–214. DOI:

Rocha-Mendes, F., Neves, C. L., Nobre, R. D. A., Marques, R. M., Bianconi, G. V., & Galetti, M. 2015. Non-volant mammals from Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Serra do Mar State Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 15(1), e20140008. DOI:

R Development Core Team. 2018. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Rodrigues, A. S., Andelman, S. J., Bakarr, M. I., Boitani, L., Brooks, T. M., Cowling, R. M., Fishpool, L. D. C., da Fonseca, G. A. B., Gaston, K. J., Hoffmann, M., Long, J. S, Marquet, P. A., Pilgrim, J. D., Pressey, R. L., Schipper, J., Sechrest, W.,

Stuart, S. N., Underhill, L. G., Waller, R. W., Watts, M. E. J., & Yan, X. 2004. Effectiveness of the global protected area

network in representing species diversity. Nature, 428(6983), 640–643. DOI:

Schloegel, L. M., Daszak, P., & Nava, A. 2005. Conservation Medicine: tackling theroot causes of emerging infectiousdiseases and seeking practical solutions. Natureza & Conservação, 3(2), 135–146.

Sousa, J. A. C., & Srbek-Araujo, A. C. 2017. Are we headed towards the defaunation of the last large Atlantic Forest remnants? Poaching activities in one of the largest remnants of the Tabuleiro forests in southeastern Brazil. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 189(3), 197–206. DOI:

Srbek-Araujo, A. C., & Chiarello, A. G. 2007. Use of camera traps in mammal sampling: methodological considerations and comparison of equipments. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 24(3), 647–656. DOI:

Srbek-Araujo, A.C., & Chiarello, A.G. 2008. Domestic dogs in Atlantic forest preserves of south-eastern Brazil: a camera-trapping study on patterns of entrance and site occupancy rates. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 68(4), 771–779. DOI:

Travassos, L., Carvalho, I. D., Pires, A. S., Gonçalves, S. N., Oliveira, P. M., Saraiva, A., & Fernandez, F. A. 2018. Living and lost mammals of Rio de Janeiro's largest biological reserve: an updated species list of Tinguá. Biota Neotropica, 18(2), e20170453. DOI:

Vanak, A. T., & Gompper, M. E. 2009. Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competition. Mammal Review, 39(4), 265–283. DOI:

Weckel, M., Giuliano, W., & Silver, S. 2006. Jaguar (Panthera onca) feeding ecology: distribution of predator and prey through time and space. Journal of zoology, 270(1), 25–30. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00106.x

Wickham, H. 2016. ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag. New York: p. 213

Wickham, H., Hester, J. & Chang, W. 2019. devtools: Tools to Make Developing R Packages Easier. R package version 2.2.1.

Zafra-Calvo, N., Garmendia, E., Pascual, U., Palomo, I., Gross-Camp, N., Brockington, D., Cortes-Vazquez, J. A., Coolsaet, B., & Burgess, N.D. 2019. Progress toward Equitably Managed Protected Areas in Aichi Target 11: A Global Survey. BioScience, 69(3), 191–197. DOI:





Short communication